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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (11) : 1269-1281     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01269
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Differential influence of sleep time parameters on preschoolers’ executive function
Shufen XING1(),Qianqian LI1,Xin GAO1,Yuanyuan MA1,Rui FU2
1 College of Psychology, Capital Normal University; Beijing Key Laboratory of “Learning & Cognition”, Beijing 100048, China
2 Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, 19146, USA
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Abstract  

In China, disruptive sleep patterns and sleep deficiency are prevalent in preschool children. Literature has largely focused on the relationship between sleep duration and child development in adolescents and school-age children. Yet little is known about the impact of sleep duration in preschool children, for example, on their advanced neurocognitive function. Given that sleep need and sleep maturation develop rapidly in the first years of life, research findings in older children cannot be generalized to preschoolers.

Developmental research indicates individual differences in sleep need. From a developmental perspective, it is crucial to explore whether children’s susceptibility to neurocognitive disruptions is associated with sleep problems. Temperament, one aspect of individual susceptibility, is shown to be relatively stable across situations and developmental periods. In this study, negative emotionality in preschool children was used to indicate temperament. The goal of this study was to examine the links between preschoolers’ initial sleep duration (i.e., total daily sleep duration, ratio of nighttime sleep to total daily sleep, and sleep compensation over the weekend) and later executive function and the moderating role of children’s negative emotionality in the links. The sample was composed of 78 preschool children (Mage = 6.31 years, SD = 0.35) and their mothers. Total daily sleep duration, ratio of nighttime sleep, sleep compensation over the weekend, and child negative emotionality were assessed using parental sleep diaries and mother reports. Child executive function was measured three months later using a set of standardized measurement procedures offered by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

The results of the present study indicated that controlling for children’s concurrent language ability, initial ratio of nighttime sleep significantly predicted children’s subsequent executive function. In addition, we found that negative emotionality significantly moderated the relation between sleep compensation and the three components of the executive function (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility), in support of the differential susceptibility model. Specifically, sleep compensation was positively associated with performance in the executive function tests for preschool children with high negative emotionality whereas the association was nonsignificant for children with low negative emotionality.

In conclusion, our findings suggested that children who sleep longer at night would be more advanced in their EF development. For children with high negative emotionality, sleep compensation over the weekend has a positive effect on their executive function skills. The results of this study provided important practical implications for Chinese preschoolers’ sleep arrangements.

Keywords sleep duration      executive function      negative emotionality      differential susceptibility      preschoolers     
ZTFLH:  B844  
Corresponding Authors: Shufen XING     E-mail: xsf2986@163.com
Issue Date: 25 September 2018
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Shufen XING
Qianqian LI
Xin GAO
Yuanyuan MA
Rui FU
Cite this article:   
Shufen XING,Qianqian LI,Xin GAO, et al. Differential influence of sleep time parameters on preschoolers’ executive function[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(11): 1269-1281.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01269     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I11/1269
  
  
  
变量 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 年龄 1
2 母亲受教育程度 0.04 1
3 父亲受教育程度 0.01 0.64** 1
4 家庭月收入 0.09 0.26* 0.24* 1
5 语言发展得分 0.23* 0.16 0.25* 0.19 1
6 总睡眠时长 0.02 0.05 0.16 0.16 0.20 1
7 夜间睡眠比 0.03 -0.22 -0.03 -0.09 0.02 -0.32** 1
8 周末补偿睡眠 0.10 0.05 0.13 -0.11 0.08 -0.16 0.18 1
9 消极情绪性 -0.05 0.10 0.26* 0.07 0.17 0.13 -0.02 0.22 1
10 抑制控制 -0.04 -0.08 0.05 -0.01 0.15 -0.02 0.43** 0.21# 0.05 1
11 认知灵活性 -0.02 -0.06 0.02 -0.04 0.31** 0.03 0.32** 0.21# 0.03 0.54** 1
12 工作记忆 -0.00 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.25* 0.02 0.31** 0.21# 0.09 0.63** 0.40** 1
M 6.31 5.87 6.07 5.38 144.59 10.23 0.90 0.31 4.15 7.40 6.63 422.78
SD 0.35 0.90 0.80 1.12 33.99 0.56 0.03 0.47 0.74 0.66 0.83 37.24
  
变量 抑制控制 认知灵活性 工作记忆
β ΔR2 ΔF β ΔR2 ΔF β ΔR2 ΔF
第一层
语言发展得分 0.15 0.01 1.64 0.31 0.10** 8.28** 0.25* 0.06* 4.85*
第二层
总睡眠时长 0.13 0.11 0.10
夜间睡眠比 0.44** 0.21** 4.92** 0.32** 0.13** 2.99* 0.31** 0.12* 2.84*
周末补偿睡眠 0.15 0.16 0.16
消极情绪 -0.01 -0.06 0.01
第三层
消极情绪性×总睡眠时长 0.18 0.20 0.13
消极情绪性×夜间睡眠比 -0.06 0.12** 4.24** -0.10 0.10** 3.50* 0.01 0.10** 3.05*
消极情绪性×周末补偿睡眠 0.35** 0.29* 0.30*
  
结果 RoS X PoI PA 交叉点 X2与ZX2 P (i)
下边界 上边界
抑制控制
消极情绪性×周末补偿睡眠 -0.71 0.70 0.51 0.51 -0.03 Ns 0.02
认知灵活性
消极情绪性×周末补偿睡眠 -0.64 1.55 0.42 0.44 0.16 Ns 0.02
工作记忆
消极情绪性×周末补偿睡眠 -1.17 0.79 0.56 0.55 -0.12 Ns 0.02
  
  
  
  
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