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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (11) : 1249-1258     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01249
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Processing of visual negation
Dexian HE1,Jinhui LI1,Miao ZHOU4,Yajue CHEN1,Yu CHEN1,Xianyou HE1,2,3()
1 School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
2 Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
3 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
4 Guangzhou Financial Guarantee Center Co., Ltd, Guangzhou 510030, China
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Abstract  

Previous research focused on the processing of verbal negation, while there was very little research in the area of visual negation. In this study, the lexical decision paradigm was used to explore the mental simulation of visual negation processing in early, middle, and late processing stages to reveal the mechanism of visual negation. To achieve this goal, we performed three experiments. In each experiment on each trial subjects first viewed a picture, and then after a interstimulus interval (ISI) that varied by experiment, viewed a word and had to decide if the word was consistent with the picture or not.

Experiment 1 explored the mental simulation of visual negation in early stage of processing using a short 250ms ISI. Participants reacted more quickly to the negative probes which represented the actual final states, as compared with the affirmative probes which represented the negated states. This implies that, in the early stage of the visual negation processing, the final state has already been simulated in the participants’ representation. Although the results did not confirm the two-step-simulation hypothesis, it supported the suppression / retention hypothesis.

Experiment 2 examined the mental simulation of visual negation in middle stage of processing using a 750ms ISI. The pattern of results was very similar to Experiment 1: participants reacted more quickly to the negative probes that represented the actual final states, as compared with the affirmative probes that represented the negated states. These results imply that the final state was simulated in the participants’ representation during the middle stage of processing.

Experiment 3 explored the late stage of processing using a 1500ms ISI. The results pattern replicated those of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, that is, the reaction time to negative probes was significantly faster than to affirmative probes. The results demonstrated that in the late stage of the visual negation processing, participants simulated the actual final state of the visual negative pictures but not the negated state of the visual negative pictures. Again, it disconfirmed the two-step simulation hypothesis, but supported the suppression / retention hypothesis.

In sum, taken together the findings from the three experiments, we can draw the following conclusions. The actual state was simulated during the processing of visual negation similarly across the early, middle, and late visual processing stages. These results support the theory that simulation occurs in a single step (the one-step simulation view) rather than the two-step simulation view. Second, the suppression / retention hypothesis for the negated information processing in visual negation has been strongly supported.

Keywords visual negation      visual negation maker      two-step-simulation hypothesis      the suppression / retention hypothesis     
ZTFLH:  B842  
Corresponding Authors: Xianyou HE     E-mail: xianyouhe@163.com
Issue Date: 25 September 2018
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Dexian HE
Jinhui LI
Miao ZHOU
Yajue CHEN
Yu CHEN
Xianyou HE
Cite this article:   
Dexian HE,Jinhui LI,Miao ZHOU, et al. Processing of visual negation[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(11): 1249-1258.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01249     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I11/1249
  
实验图片 探测词 图-词匹配状态
吸烟 匹配
禁烟 匹配
禁烟 不匹配
吸烟 不匹配
  
  
图片类型 肯定动词 否定动词
肯定图片
反应时 750 ± 105 946 ± 134
正确率 0.97 ± 0.05 0.88 ± 0.09
否定图片
反应时 980 ± 114 905 ± 134
正确率 0.87 ± 0.10 0.85 ± 0.11
  
图片类型 肯定动词 否定动词
肯定图片
反应时 871 ± 159 1047 ± 146
正确率 0.94 ± 0.06 0.88 ± 0.08
否定图片
反应时 1063 ± 133 986 ± 140
正确率 0.90 ± 0.07 0.89 ± 0.09
  
图片类型 肯定动词 否定动词
肯定图片
反应时 777 ± 109 976 ± 161
正确率 0.94 ± 0.06 0.88 ± 0.08
否定图片
反应时 991 ± 128 936 ± 139
正确率 0.89 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.09
  
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