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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (9) : 997-1006     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00997
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Trait anxiety predicts the response to acute psychological stress
Huini PENG1,Jianhui WU1,Xiaofang SUN2,Qing GUAN1,Yuejia LUO1()
1 College of Psychology and Sociology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, China
2 Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Abstract  

Recently, An increasing number of studies are focusing on individual differences in response to acute psychological stress. Emerging evidence suggests that personality, especially trait anxiety, might be a significant predictive factor of individual difference in response to acute stress. Most of the previous studies have taken trait anxiety as a categorical (discontinuous)construct. However, a full-range analysis of trait anxiety could result in greater statistical power and less parameter estimation bias. The present study aims to examine whether and how the continuum of trait anxiety scores predict the acute psychological stress response induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) while controlling for the potentially confounding factors of gender, age and education years.
A total of 54 healthy students (35 males, 19 females), aged 18~25 years (mean: 22.57 ± 1.67) and educated for 13~18 years (mean: 15.89 ± 1.34), were recruited from universities in Beijing. Several inclusion criteria were employed to control for potential factors influencing the stress response (see 2.1 for details). The acute psychological stress was induced by the TSST and the stress response was measured with heart rate (the index of the response in sympathetic adrenal medulla) and salivary cortisol (the index of the response in hypothalamus pituitary-adrenal). Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to study how trait anxiety predicts the heart rate and salivary cortisol response toward stress.
The result showed that the TSST elicited significantly acute psychological stress responses. Specifically, both heart rate and salivary cortisol during the TSST were higher than that measured at any other time points. Regression analysis corroborated that after controlling for gender, age and education years, trait anxiety significantly and negatively predicted heart rate response (β = -0.35, p < 0.01), but not salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress.
The present findings suggest that trait anxiety is a powerful predictor of sympathetic adrenal medulla response, i.e., individuals with higher level of trait anxiety perform lower sympathetic nerve activity in rapid response to acute psychological stress. Individuals with high trait anxiety may experience long-term anxiety in their daily life and chronic consumption of psychophysiological resources, thereby resulting in the limited response to acute stressors.

Keywords trait anxiety      acute psychological stress      heart rate      salivary cortisol      predict     
ZTFLH:  B845  
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Issue Date: 27 July 2018
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Huini PENG
Jianhui WU
Xiaofang SUN
Qing GUAN
Yuejia LUO
Cite this article:   
Huini PENG,Jianhui WU,Xiaofang SUN, et al. Trait anxiety predicts the response to acute psychological stress[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(9): 997-1006.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00997     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I9/997
  
应激反应指标 时间点
基线 准备 演讲 心算 1 2 3 4
心率(bmp) 76.41(9.52) 79.78(10.87) 92.69(14.57) 91.94(14.61) 75.85(10.16) 75.31(10.14) 75.13(8.77) 74.43(9.49)
唾液皮质醇(nmol/L) 8.77(3.92) 11.81(4.43) 14.69(5.55) 11.01(3.37) 8.92(2.58)
  
  
  
  
模型 预测因子 B β t p R2 R2 F p
模型一:△心率
第一步 0.13 2.40 0.078
性别 -0.06 -0.002 -0.017 0.986
年龄 -2.42 -0.33 -1.54 0.130
受教育时间 5.00 0.55 2.57 0.013
第二步 0.11 0.24 3.85 0.008
性别 2.10 0.08 0.64 0.523
年龄 -2.52 -0.35 -1.70 0.095
受教育时间 5.14 0.57 2.80 0.007
特质焦虑 -0.75 -0.35 -2.70 0.009
模型二:△唾液皮质醇
第一步 0.02 0.35 0.792
性别 -1.21 -0.10 -0.71 0.482
年龄 0.40 0.12 0.50 0.618
受教育时间 0.14 -0.03 0.14 0.890
第二步 0.01 0.05 0.27 0.898
性别 -1.12 -0.09 -0.63 0.534
年龄 0.40 0.11 0.49 0.626
受教育时间 -0.14 -0.03 -0.14 0.893
特质焦虑 -0.03 -0.03 -0.22 0.829
  
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