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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (7) : 771-781     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00771
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Couples when young and companions when aged: The relationship between marital attachment and loneliness of left behind elderly
Qili XIE1,2,Chongjing LI3,Xiaoshan QUAN4,Guangrong JIANG5, 1()
1 School of Psychology, Central China Normal University; Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; Key Laboratory of Human Development and Mental Health of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430079, China
2 Department of Mental health education and consultation center, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang 550018, China
3 Department of Mental health education and consultation center, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang 550018, China
4 School of Educational Science, Anshun College, Anshun 561000, China
5 Guiyang Children's Normal College, Guiyang 550001, China
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Abstract  

In rural areas of China, more than 50 million elderly people are left-behind, and they have a strong sense of loneliness. The relationship between husband and wife plays an important role in alleviating the loneliness feeling of the elderly, therefore, it is crucial to understand the association between marital attachment and loneliness of left-behind elderly. Previous study showed that Chinese elderly’s marital attachment was composed in three dimensions: security, avoidance and anxiety. However, the three-dimensional structure of Chinese elderly’s marital attachment has not been tested in the rural elderly population. In addition, the association between Chinese elderly’s loneliness and their three-dimensional marital attachment is also not clear. Therefore, further studies are needed. The current study, firstly, tested the three-dimensional structure of the Chinese elderly’s marital attachment, and secondly, investigated the relationship between marital attachment and loneliness of left-behind elderly.

The Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale, Scale of Perceived Social Support, Core Self-Evaluations Scale, and ULS-8 Loneliness Scale were administered to 510 left-behind elderly from rural areas in China. All cases were randomly assigned to two subsets: one set was for exploratory factor analysis, and the other was for confirmatory factor analysis. The SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 20.0 were used for this analysis, and the structural equation model and the bootstrapping analysis were employed to examine the hypothesized mediating model.

The key findings were as follows: (1) the 14-item revised OAMAS showed a three-dimensional construct of attachment, namely security, avoidance, and anxiety; (2) the marital attachment of left-behind elderly could be clustered into three types, including secure marital attachment (37.84%), refusal marital attachment (31.18%), and anxious marital attachment (30.98%). The proportion of secure marital attachment in left-behind elderly was significantly lower than that in community elderly (Z = -5.63, p < 0.001), and the proportion of refusal marital attachment in left-behind elderly was significantly higher than that in community elderly (Z = 7.01, p < 0.001) ; (3) perceived social support fully mediated the association among security attachment, avoidance attachment and loneliness. Perceived social support and core self-evaluations had multiple mediation effects on the association among security attachment, avoidance attachment and loneliness. While the association between anxiety attachment and loneliness was partially mediated by core self-evaluations.

The results indicated that three-dimensional structure of Older Adults’ Marital Attachment Scale was an effective measurement of marital attachment in left-behind elderly group. There was a close relationship between the marital attachment and loneliness of the left-behind elderly, safe marital attachment could effectively relieve the loneliness of left-behind elderly. The results may help to expand the study range of elderly’s marital attachment, and provide a reference for reducing the loneliness of the left-behind elderly. implications and limitations are discussed.

Keywords marital attachment      perceived social support      core self-evaluation      loneliness      left behind elderly     
ZTFLH:  B844  
Issue Date: 29 May 2018
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Qili XIE
Chongjing LI
Xiaoshan QUAN
Guangrong JIANG
Cite this article:   
Qili XIE,Chongjing LI,Xiaoshan QUAN, et al. Couples when young and companions when aged: The relationship between marital attachment and loneliness of left behind elderly[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 771-781.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00771     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I7/771
  
依恋维度 安全型夫妻依恋 拒绝型夫妻依恋 焦虑型夫妻依恋
依恋安全中心 0.73 -1.21 0.34
依恋回避中心 -0.94 0.37 0.72
依恋焦虑中心 -0.76 0.12 0.80
留守老人样本数(%) 193 (37.84%) 159 (31.18%) 158 (30.98%)
城市社区老人样本数(%) 244 (56.2%) 50 (11.5%) 140 (32.3%)
  
变量 1.安全型依恋 2.拒绝型依恋 3.焦虑型依恋 F η2 事后比较
领悟社会支持 5.10 (0.77) 4.27 (0.80) 4.67 (0.79) 46.52*** 0.16 1 > 2, 1 > 3, 3 > 2
核心自我评价 2.87 (0.33) 2.62 (0.32) 2.67 (0.36) 24.57*** 0.09 1 > 2, 1 > 3
孤独感 2.21 (0.39) 2.51 (0.31) 2.47 (0.39) 33.31*** 0.12 1 < 2, 1 < 3
  
变量 M (SD) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1. 依恋安全 3.16 (0.66)
2. 依恋回避 2.41 (0.74) -0.34***
3. 依恋焦虑 2.61 (0.68) -0.19*** 0.52***
4. 家庭支持 4.80 (1.02) 0.39*** -0.25*** -0.15**
5. 朋友支持 4.52 (0.79) 0.28*** -0.16*** -0.08* 0.60***
6. 其他支持 4.78 (0.97) 0.41*** -0.27*** -0.11** 0.74*** 0.52***
7. 领悟社会支持 4.71 (0.86) 0.42*** -0.26*** -0.14** 0.91*** 0.82*** 0.87***
8. 核心自我评价 2.19 (1.12) 0.26*** -0.24*** -0.24*** 0.41*** 0.27*** 0.39*** 0.42***
9. 孤独感 2.35 (0.43) -0.16*** 0.29*** 0.39*** -0.37*** -0.29*** -0.30*** -0.37*** -0.46***
  
  
路径 标准化的间接效应估计 95%置信区间
下限 上限
1. 依恋安全—领悟社会支持—孤独感 0.44 × (-0.21) = -0.09 -0.11 -0.08
2. 依恋安全—领悟社会支持—核心自我评价—孤独感 0.44 × 0.53 × (-0.35) = -0.08 -0.11 -0.05
3. 依恋回避—领悟社会支持—孤独感 -0.15 × (-0.21) = 0.03 0.01 0.05
4. 依恋回避—领悟社会支持—核心自我评价—孤独感 -0.15 × 0.53 × (-0.35 ) = 0.03 0.02 0.05
5. 依恋焦虑—核心自我评价—孤独感 -0.23 × (-0.35) = 0.08 0.03 0.16
  
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