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Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (7) : 750-760     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00750
Reports of Empirical Studies |
The influence of maternal encouragement of autonomy on toddler’s exploration: Moderating effect of attachment
Qun JIANG1,2,Shan LU1,Qian ZHANG1,Zhengyan WANG1()
1 College of Psychology, Center for Child Development, Learning and Cognitive Key Laboratory, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
2 The High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China Shenzhen School, Shenzhen 518119, China
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Abstract  

Exploratory behavior, derived from one’s motor development, is an important way for infants to obtain information from external environment. Exploration is generally associated with adaptive developmental outcomes, especially cognitive abilities. Although there have been a great number of studies on exploration, most of which focused on the informational value afforded by novel objects, individual differences and different stages of exploration. The environmental factors, more specifically, the maternal behaviors have been obtained little attention. However, two distinctive theories posit mother’s behavior plays a significant role in infant’s exploration, attachment theory and self-determination theory. According to attachment theory, the attachment system and the exploratory system are two distinct yet inseparably linked behavioral systems, and the attachment system contributes to the quality of infant exploration by providing the infant a secure base from which to explore. Self-determination theory argues that infant’s exploration is driven by his/her intrinsic motivation. Individuals will be most intrinsically motivated when the environment supports their need for autonomy, rather than controlling their behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine influence of maternal encouragement of autonomy on 14-month toddler’s exploration and the moderating role of attachment in the relationship between maternal encouragement of autonomy and toddler’s exploratory behavior.

Sixty-six toddlers (M = 14.77 months, SD = 0.99) and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers’ attachment status was assessed by the Strange Situation procedure in the laboratory. A semi-structure family observation was conducted in the next 2 to 4 weeks. Each toddler was shown three novel objects placing on the floor and requested to explore them for 6 minutes. The toddler’s exploration as well as maternal encouragement of autonomy was videotaped and coded.

Results were as follows: after controlling for children’s temperament and family socioeconomic status, (1) maternal encouragement of autonomy positively predicted toddler’s total frequencies of exploratory operations, types of exploratory operations and exploratory persistence; (2) mother-infant attachment negatively predicted toddler’s total frequencies of exploratory operations, and positively predicted toddler’s average duration of exploratory operations; (3) the influence of maternal encouragement of autonomy on toddler’s exploratory competence was significantly moderated by the pattern of attachment. Specifically, the prediction of maternal encouragement of autonomy on toddler’s exploratory competence was significant when the child established a security attachment, while for the insecure infants, this prediction was nonsignificant.

These results indicated that maternal encouragement of autonomy could significantly promote toddler’s exploratory behavior. Toddler’s secure attachment played a significant role in the relationship between maternal encouragement and toddler’s exploration. It highlighted the importance of establishing a secure attachment relationship, which was directly linked to the effectiveness of mother’s positive parenting behaviors.

Keywords toddler      exploratory behavior      maternal encouragement of autonomy      attachment     
ZTFLH:  B844  
Issue Date: 29 May 2018
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Qun JIANG
Shan LU
Qian ZHANG
Zhengyan WANG
Cite this article:   
Qun JIANG,Shan LU,Qian ZHANG, et al. The influence of maternal encouragement of autonomy on toddler’s exploration: Moderating effect of attachment[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 750-760.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00750     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I7/750
序号 操作行为 描述
(1) 一只手或两只手把着玩具在支撑表面上滑动
(2) 摇晃 拿着玩具在空中来回移动
(3) 旋转 在手上转动玩具或玩具部件
(4) 按压、拍打 用手指或手掌挤压玩具
(5) 把玩具在支撑表面上撞击
(6) 两只手倒换 把玩具从一只手换到另一只手
(7) 掉落、扔 丢弃玩具
(8) 把玩具拉近自己
(9) 把玩具放到嘴巴里
(10) 抓取玩具
(11) 手在玩具表面上轻轻移动
(12) 手部接触 用手拿着玩具
(13) 举、抬 把玩具抓起离开支撑表面并举高
(14) 打开玩具盖子的动作,如:打开形状屋的房顶
(15) 够取 发出动作想要拿物体到接触物体之间的动作
(16) 松手放 松开手放开玩具
(17) 周围环境 对周围环境的探索
  
变量 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M ± SD Min~Max
1. 探索操作总频次(次) 1 88.95 ± 23.95 1.72~3.94
2. 探索操作平均时长(秒) -0.54*** 1 2.02 ± 0.54 39.77~141.36
3. 探索操作种类(类) 0.42*** -0.14 1 12.61 ± 1.59 0.67~3.44
4. 探索坚持性(秒) 0.48*** -0.12 0.38** 1 244.80 ± 42.64 8.00~17.00
5. 探索能力 0.14 -0.08 0.16 0.03 1 16.94 ± 12.06 133.00~300.00
6. 母亲鼓励自主(次) 0.28* -0.11 0.35** 0.29* 0.12 1 37.31 ± 13.08 0.00~47.00
7. 儿童依恋类型 -0.35** 0.37** 0.11 -0.23+ 0.15 -0.08 1
SES -0.01 ± 0.72 -2.00~1.00
气质困难度 3.19 ± 0.45 1.72~3.94
  
变量及步骤 探索操作总频次 探索操作平均时长 探索操作种类 探索坚持性 探索能力
β ΔR2 β ΔR2 β ΔR2 β ΔR2 β ΔR2
第一步(enter) 0.020 0.073+ 0.025 0.013 0.040
SES 0.07 -0.07 0.05 0.00 -0.20
儿童气质困难 -0.12 0.26 -0.15 -0.11 -0.03
第二步(enter) 0.180** 0.131* 0.136* 0.125* 0.039
SES 0.11 -0.07 0.14 0.05 -0.16
儿童气质困难 -0.21+ 0.33+ -0.17 -0.19 -0.02
母亲鼓励自主 0.26* -0.08 0.37** 0.28* 0.14
儿童依恋类型 -0.33** 0.35** 0.14 -0.21 0.16
第三步(enter) 0.001 0.020 0.000 0.026 0.065*
SES 0.12 -0.09 0.14 0.04 -0.18
儿童气质困难 -0.21+ 0.32+ -0.17 -0.19 -0.03
母亲鼓励自主 0.31 -0.30 0.38+ 0.04+ -0.26
儿童依恋类型 -0.32* 0.33** 0.14 -0.23 0.12
自主×依恋 -0.06 0.26 -0.01 0.29 0.46*
总计(ΔR2) 0.201 0.225 0.161 0.163 0.145
  
  
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