Please wait a minute...
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (7) : 715-726     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00715
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Effect of parafoveal visual attention enhancement in deaf reading: Evidence from disappearing text
Lu LIU1,2,Guoli YAN1()
1 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China
2 School of Education Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264011, China
Download: PDF(485 KB)   HTML Review File (1 KB) 
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info
Guide   
Abstract  

Visual information is essential to deaf people given their early auditory deprivation. Some researchers have proposed a perspective in which the distribution of deaf visual attention resource shifted from the central to the extrafoveal visual field. This study explores how this unique visual processing ability may influence reading in deaf people and proposes ‘the effect of parafoveal visual attention enhancement in deaf reading.’ We hypothesise that visual attention resources are reorganised due to the absence of auditory input for deaf people. This reorganisation increased distribution toward the extrafoveal field, but decreased it in the foveal field, resulting in poor reading efficiency.

A total of 29 severely to profoundly deaf students (DS) from a deaf school in Tianjin participated in the present study. Their hearing loss is ≥ 90 dB in the better ear. Participants are either born deaf or became deaf before three years old, and they use Chinese Sign Language (CSL) as their main communication mode. None of them received a cochlear implant. The age control group (AC) has 29 hearing middle school students, which indicated no significant difference in chronological age with DS. In addition, 29 hearing primary students comprised the reading-level control group (RC). The DS and RC were examined through a series of reading tests, including orthographic judgment task, reading fluency and reading comprehension, to match their reading levels. All participants read Chinese sentences for comprehension as their eye movements were tracked. A total of 48 pairs of target words (48 high frequency and 48 low frequency words) were embedded in two different sentence frames. All sentences consisted of seven or eight double-character words. These sentences were either presented normally or in a disappearing text paradigm that, as each word (n) was fixated, the word (n) or the next word (n + 1) remained visible only for a short period (40 ms) before disappearing. The paradigm was utilised to manipulate the display duration for the parafoveal word n + 1 (Experiment 1) or the foveal word N (Experiment 2) respectively, to compare the efficiency (speed) of encoding visual text information in sentence reading.

In Experiment 1, when word n + 1 was presented briefly (40 ms), the overall sentence reading times were prolonged only for reading-level control group, but no difference was observed between deaf students and age control group. The effect of word frequency on target words was normal for all three groups. By contrast, in Experiment 2, during which word n was presented briefly (40 ms), the overall sentence reading times were prolonged only for deaf students. For gaze duration, the effect of word frequency for target words disappeared for deaf students. Therefore, deaf students showed higher efficiency of encoding parafoveal text information than their reading-level controls in Experiment 1 and were equal to their age controls. However, in Experiment 2, deaf students showed lower efficiency in encoding foveal text information than those in the hearing controls.

In conclusion, the present study confirmed that deaf readers have enhanced parafoveal processing of linguistic information, but their foveal processing was hampered as a consequence. Thus, parafoveal visual attention was enhanced in deaf reading, which may be one of reasons for reading difficulty. Further research is necessary to explore this issue.

Keywords deaf      effect of parafoveal visual attention enhancement in deaf reading      disappearing text      eye movements      Chinese reading     
ZTFLH:  B842  
Issue Date: 29 May 2018
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Lu LIU
Guoli YAN
Cite this article:   
Lu LIU,Guoli YAN. Effect of parafoveal visual attention enhancement in deaf reading: Evidence from disappearing text[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 715-726.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00715     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I7/715
阅读测验项目 DS RC
正字法意识(正确率%) 74.09 (13.00) 73.21 (8.41)
阅读流畅性(字/分) 302.76 (136.04) 314.44 (99.00)
阅读理解(分) 10.86 (2.82) 11.31 (2.34)
  
框架1 高频词(HF) 世界珍稀植物 标本将于明天展出。
低频词(LF) 世界珍稀鸟类 标本将于明天展出。
框架2 高频词(HF) 研究显示每年许多植物 濒临灭绝。
低频词(LF) 研究显示每年许多鸟类 濒临灭绝。
  
  
眼动指标
(整理分析)
聋生组 阅读能力匹配组 生理年龄匹配组
40 ms消失 正常呈现 40 ms消失 正常呈现 40 ms消失 正常呈现
总阅读时间(ms) 3795 (1272) 3676 (1232) 4121 (1443) 3869 (1249) 3047 (862) 3065 (914)
跳读率(%) 35 (13) 31 (17) 25 (11) 17 (11) 28 (10) 25 (12)
回视次数(次) 3.08 (1.23) 2.8 (1.38) 2.57 (1.14) 2.62 (1.06) 2.52 (0.98) 2.54 (0.93)
  
眼动指标
(局部分析)
被试类型 呈现条件
40 ms 正常
高频 低频 高频 低频
凝视时间
(ms)
聋生组 294 (64) 311 (72) 286 (69) 287 (76)
阅读能力匹配组 352 (71) 375 (70) 303 (77) 345 (82)
生理年龄匹配组 298 (74) 321 (74) 283 (56) 283 (60)
总注视时间
(ms)
聋生组 518 (154) 579 (173) 521 (124) 549 (161)
阅读能力匹配组 543 (166) 598 (162) 490 (171) 555 (167)
生理年龄匹配组 452 (134) 478 (126) 453 (121) 464 (128)
  
眼动指标
(整体分析)
聋生组 阅读能力匹配组 生理年龄匹配组
40 ms消失 正常呈现 40 ms消失 正常呈现 40 ms消失 正常呈现
总阅读时间(ms) 4805 (1519) 4340 (1458) 4498 (1295) 4416 (1151) 3622 (1074) 3549 (1122)
跳读率(%) 34 (11) 34 (11) 23 (10) 21 (11) 28 (11) 26 (12)
回视次数(次) 4.78 (1.35) 3.69 (1.76) 4.17 (1.56) 3.17 (0.95) 3.14 (1.18) 2.95 (1.32)
  
眼动指标
(局部分析)
被试类型 呈现条件
40 ms 正常
高频 低频 高频 低频
凝视时间
(ms)
聋生组 282 (75) 272 (67) 262 (77) 304 (126)
阅读能力
匹配组
301 (80) 327 (97) 321 (87) 350 (87)
生理年龄
匹配组
282 (63) 334 (99) 292 (62) 322 (71)
总注视时间
(ms)
聋生组 791 (213) 851 (285) 654 (284) 819 (259)
阅读能力
匹配组
654 (216) 794 (279) 597 (216) 771 (265)
生理年龄
匹配组
560 (223) 622 (185) 537 (176) 599 (199)
  
  
[1] Bélanger, N.N . ( 2009). Reading is in the eye of the beholder: Eye movements and early word processes in deaf readers of French (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). McGill University.
[2] Bélanger, N.N., &Rayner K. , ( 2015). What eye movements reveal about deaf readers. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24( 3), 220-226.
pmid: 4651440 url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0963721414567527
[3] Bélanger N. N., Slattery T. J., Mayberry R. I., & Rayner K . ( 2012). Skilled deaf readers have an enhanced perceptual span in reading. Psychological Science, 23 7), 816-823.
pmid: 22683830 url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797611435130
[4] Barr D. J., Levy R., Scheepers C., & Tily H. J . ( 2013). Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68( 3), 255-278.
pmid: 24403724 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0749596X12001180
[5] Bates D. M., Maechler M., & Bolker B. ( 2011 ). LME4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes. R Package Version 0. 999375-39. Retrieved from
url: http://CRAN.R-project.org/package= lme4
[6] Bavelier D., Brozinsky C., Tomann A., Mitchell T., Neville H. J., & Liu G. Y . ( 2001). Impact of early deafness and early exposure to sign language on the cerebral organization for motion processing. Journal of Neuroscience, 21( 22), 8931-8942.
pmid: 11698604 url: http://www.jneurosci.org/lookup/doi/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.21-22-08931.2001
[7] Bavelier D., Dye M. W. G., & Hauser P. C . ( 2006). Do deaf individuals see better? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10( 11), 512-518.
pmid: 2885708 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1364661306002439
[8] Blythe, H.I . ( 2014). Developmental changes in eye movements and visual information encoding associated with learning to read. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23( 3), 201-207.
url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0963721414530145
[9] Blythe H. I., Häikiö T., Bertam R., Liversedge S. P., & Hyönä J . ( 2011). Reading disappearing text: Why do children refixate words? Vision Research, 51( 1), 84-92.
pmid: 20934446 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0042698910004943
[10] Blythe H. I., Liversedge S. P., Joseph H. S. S. L., White S. J., & Rayner K . ( 2009). Visual information capture during fixations in reading for children and adults. Vision Research, 49( 12), 1583-1591.
pmid: 2692560 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0042698909000984
[11] Bosse, M.L., &Valdois S. , ( 2009). Influence of the visual attention span on child reading performance: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Research in Reading, 32( 2), 230-253.
url: http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jrir.2009.32.issue-2
[12] Casco C., Tressoldi P. E., & Dellantonio A . ( 1998). Visual selective attention and reading efficiency are related in children. Cortex, 34( 4), 531-546.
url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0010945208705124
[13] Codina C., Buckley D., Port M., & Pascalis O . ( 2011). Deaf and hearing children: A comparison of peripheral vision development. Developmental Science, 14( 4), 725-737.
pmid: 21676093 url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/desc.2011.14.issue-4
[14] Dowaliby, F., &Lang H. , ( 1999). Adjunct aids in instructional prose: A multimedia study with deaf college students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 4( 4), 270-282.
pmid: 15579894 url: https://academic.oup.com/jdsde/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/deafed/4.4.270
[15] Dye, M. W.G . ( 2016). Foveal processing under concurrent peripheral load in profoundly deaf adults. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 21( 2), 122-128.
pmid: 26657078 url: https://academic.oup.com/jdsde/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/deafed/env054
[16] Dye, M.W., &Bavelier D. , ( 2010). Attentional enhancements and deficits in deaf populations: An integrative review. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 28( 2), 181-192.
pmid: 20404407 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20404407
[17] Dye M. W. G., Hauser P. C., & Bavelier D . ( 2008). Visual skills and cross-modal plasticity in deaf readers: Possible implications for acquiring meaning from print. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1145, 71-82.
url: http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1196/nyas.2008.1145.issue-1
[18] Dye M. W. G., Hauser P. C., & Bavelier D . ( 2009). Is visual selective attention in deaf individuals enhanced or deficient? The case of the useful field of view. PLoS One, 4( 5), e5640.
pmid: 2680667 url: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005640
[19] He, H.Z., &He L.Z . ( 2007). A research on deaf students’ eye-movement in discourse reading. Chinese Journal of Special Education,( 11), 31-35.
[19] [ 贺荟中, 贺利中 . ( 2007). 聋生篇章阅读过程的眼动研究. 中国特殊教育, ( 11), 31-35.]
[20] Hyönä,J. ( 2012). Foveal and parafoveal processing during reading. In The Oxford handbook of eye movements . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2011-23569-045
[21] Kelly L. P. & Barac-Cikoja , D. , ( 2007) . The comprehension of skilled deaf readers: The roles of word recognition and other potentially critical aspects of competence. In K. Cain & J. Oakhill (Eds.), Children’s comprehension problems in oral and written language: A cognitive perspective (pp. 244-280). New York: Guilford Press.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2007-05218-009
[22] Kliegl R., Masson M. E. J., & Richter E. M . ( 2010). A linear mixed model analysis of masked repetition priming. Visual Cognition, 18, 655-681.
url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13506280902986058
[23] Lane H., Pillard R. C., & Hedberg U . ( 2011). The people of the eye: Deaf ethnicity and ancestry. Oxford: Oxford University Press
[24] Lei L., Pan J., Liu H. Y., McBride-Chang C., Li H., Zhang Y. P., .. Shu H . ( 2011). Developmental trajectories of reading development and impairment from ages 3 to 8 years in Chinese children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52( 2), 212-220.
pmid: 20854364 url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02311.x
[25] Liu, N.N . ( 2015). Revealing the time requirements of information extraction from words in foveal and parafoveal for reading in Chinese (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Tianjin Normal University.
[25] [ 刘妮娜 . ( 2015). 中文阅读中的中央凹和副中央凹信息获取时间研究 (博士学位论文). 天津师范大学.]
[26] Liu Z. F., Pan Y., Tong W., & Liu N . ( 2017). Effects of adults aging on word encoding in reading Chinese: Evidence from disappearing text. PeerJ, 5, e2897.
pmid: 28123911 url: http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5244883/
[27] Liu Z. F., Wen S. H., & Zhang F . ( 2014). Analysis of age characteristics on visual coding in Chinese reading: evidence from eye movements. Psychological Development and Education, 30( 4), 411-419.
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xlfzyjy201404010
[27] [ 刘志方, 翁世华, 张锋 . ( 2014). 中文阅读中词汇视觉编码的年龄特征: 来自眼动研究的证据. 心理发展与教育, 30( 4), 411-419.]
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xlfzyjy201404010
[28] Liu Z. F., Zhang Z. J., Pan Y., Tong W., & Su H . ( 2017). The characteristics of visual word encoding in preview and fixation frames during Chinese reading: Evidences from disappearing text. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 49( 7), 853-865.
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xlxb201707001
[28] [ 刘志方, 张智君, 潘运, 仝文, 苏衡 . ( 2017). 中文阅读中预视阶段和注视阶段内词汇视觉编码的过程特点: 来自消失文本的证据. 心理学报, 49( 7), 853-865.]
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xlxb201707001
[29] Liu Z. F., Zhang Z. J., & Zhao Y. J . ( 2011). The units saccade targeting based on and words procession style in Chinese reading: Evidences from disappearing text. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 43( 6), 608-618.
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xlxb201106002
[29] [ 刘志方, 张智君, 赵亚军 . ( 2011). 汉语阅读中眼跳目标选择单元以及词汇加工方式: 来自消失文本的实验证据. 心理学报, 43( 6), 608-618.]
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xlxb201106002
[30] Liversedge S. P., Rayner K., White S. J., Vergilino-Perez D., Findlay J. M., & Kentridge R. W . ( 2004). Eye movements when reading disappearing text: Is there a gap effect in reading? Vision Research, 44( 10), 1013-1024.
pmid: 15031094 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0042698903007909
[31] Lork, W.H., &Song S. , ( 1991). Central and peripheral visual processing in hearing and nonhearing individuals. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 29( 5), 437-440.
url: http://link.springer.com/10.3758/BF03333964
[32] Marschark M. & Hauser, P. C. , ( 2008) . Cognitive underpinnings of learning by deaf and hard-of-hearing students. In Deaf cognition:Foundations and outcomes(pp. 3-24). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
url: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/oso/2793134/2008/00000001/00000001/art00001
[33] Marschark M., Morrison C., Lukomski J., Borgna G., & Convertino C . ( 2013). Are deaf students visual learners? Learning and Individual Differences, 25, 156-162.
pmid: 23750095 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1041608013000320
[34] Marschark M., Paivio A., Spencer L. J., Durkin A., Borgna G., Convertino C., & Machmer E . ( 2017). Don’t assume deaf students are visual learners. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 29( 1), 153-171.
pmid: 28344430 url: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10882-016-9494-0
[35] Marschark M., Spencer L. J., Durkin A., Borgna G., Convertino C., Machmer E., .. Trani A . ( 2015). Understanding language, hearing status, and visual-spatial skills. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 20( 4), 310-330.
pmid: 4836709 url: https://academic.oup.com/jdsde/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/deafed/env025
[36] Mayberry R. I., del Giudice A. A., & Lieberman A. M . ( 2011). Reading achievement in relation to phonological coding and awareness in deaf readers: A meta-analysis. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16( 2), 164-188.
pmid: 21071623 url: https://academic.oup.com/jdsde/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/deafed/enq049
[37] Pan J., Shu H., Wang Y. L., & Yan M . ( 2015). Parafoveal activation of sign translation previews among deaf readers during the reading of Chinese sentences. Memory and Cognition, 43( 6), 964-972.
pmid: 25707914 url: http://link.springer.com/10.3758/s13421-015-0511-9
[38] Proksch, J, &Bavelier D. , ( 2002). Changes in the spatial distribution of visual attention after early deafness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14( 5), 687-701.
pmid: 12167254 url: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/10.1162/08989290260138591
[39] Qiao J. Z., Zhang L. L., & Yan G. L . ( 2011). Comparative research on perceptual span in Chinese reading between deaf college students and hearing college students. Chinese Journal of Applied Psychology, 17( 3), 249- 258, 264.
[39] [ 乔静芝, 张兰兰, 闫国利 . ( 2011). 聋人与健听大学生汉语阅读知觉广度的比较研究. 应用心理学, 17( 3), 249- 258, 264.]
[40] Rayner, K. ( 1977). Visual attention in reading: Eye movements reflect cognitive processes. Memory and Cognition, 5( 4), 443-448.
pmid: 24203011 url: http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.3758/BF03197383
[41] Rayner, K. . ( 1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124( 3), 372-422.
pmid: 353867 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0033-2909.124.3.372
[42] Rayner, K. ( 2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62( 8), 1457-1506.
url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1080/17470210902816461
[43] Rayner K., Liversedge S. P., & White S. J . ( 2006). Eye movements when reading disappearing text: The importance of the word to the right of fixation. Vision Research, 46( 3), 310-323.
pmid: 16085229 url: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0042698905003068
[44] Rayner K., Liversedge S. P., White S. J., & Vergilino-Perez D . ( 2003). Reading disappearing text: Cognitive control of eye movements. Psychological Science, 14( 4), 385-388.
url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1111/1467-9280.24483
[45] Rayner K., Murphy L. A., Henderson J. M., & Pollatsek A . ( 1989). Selective attentional dyslexia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 6( 4), 357-378.
url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02643298908253288
[46] Rayner K., Schotter E. R., Masson M. E. J., Potter M. C., & Treiman R . ( 2016). So much to read, so little time: How do we read, and can speed reading help? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17( 1), 4-34.
url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1529100615623267
[47] Rayner K., Yang J. M., Castelhano M. S., & Liversedge S. P . ( 2011). Eye movements of older and younger readers when reading disappearing text. Psychology and Aging, 26( 1), 214-223.
pmid: 21142374 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/a0021279
[48] Sladen D. P., Tharpe A. M., Ashmead D. H., Grantham D. W., & Chun M. M . ( 2005). Visual attention in deaf and normal hearing adults: Effects of stimulus compatibility. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48( 6), 1529-1537.
url: http://jslhr.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1044/1092-4388(2005/106)
[49] Song S., Su M. M., Kang C. P., Liu H. Y., Zhang Y. P., McBride-Chang C., .. Shu H . ( 2015). Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study. Developmental Science, 18( 1), 119-131.
pmid: 24962559 url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/desc.2014.18.issue-1
[50] Stevens, C. , &Neville H.J, . ( 2006). Neuroplasticity as a double-edged sword: Deaf enhancements and dyslexic deficits in motion processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18( 5), 701-714.
pmid: 16768371 url: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/10.1162/jocn.2006.18.5.701
[51] Venables,W.N., &Ripley B.D . ( 2002). Modern applied statistics with S (4th ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
[52] Wang, T.W., &Yang J. , ( 2013). On the eye movement concerning the attentional capture by hearing-impaired persons and normal persons in different visual positions. Chinese Journal of Special Education,( 3), 30-36.
[52] [ 王庭蔚, 杨娟 . ( 2013). 不同视野位置下聋人与听力正常人注意捕获的眼动研究. 中国特殊教育, ( 3), 30-36.]
[53] Xiang, M.Q., &Hu G.D . ( 2010). The visual attention of deaf individuals: Transferred from the center to the periphery. Chinese Journal of Special Education,( 3), 26-30.
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/zgtsjy201003006
[53] [ 项明强, 胡耿丹 . ( 2010). 聋人视觉注意的改变: 从中央转移到边缘视野. 中国特殊教育, ( 3), 26-30.]
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/zgtsjy201003006
[54] Yan G. L., Liu N. N., Liang F. F., Liu Z. F., & Bai X. J . ( 2015). The comparison of eye movements between Chinese children and adults when reading disappearing text. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 47( 3), 300-318.
url: http://www.cqvip.com/QK/90117X/201503/663984680.html
[54] [ 闫国利, 刘妮娜, 梁菲菲, 刘志方, 白学军 . ( 2015). 中文读者词汇视觉信息获取速度的发展——来自消失文本的证据. 心理学报, 47( 3), 300-318.]
url: http://www.cqvip.com/QK/90117X/201503/663984680.html
[55] Yan G. L., Wu J. G., Hu Y. W., & Bai X. J . ( 2015). Review of Eye Movement Research Paradigms in Reading. Advances in Psychological Science, 18( 12), 1966-1976.
url: http://www.cqvip.com/QK/80511A/201012/36056810.html
[55] [ 闫国利, 巫金根, 胡晏雯, 白学军 . ( 2010). 当前阅读的眼动研究范式述评. 心理科学进展, 18( 12), 1966-1976.]
url: http://www.cqvip.com/QK/80511A/201012/36056810.html
[56] Yan G. L., Xiong J. P., Zang C. L., Yu L. L., Cui L., & Bai X. J . ( 2013). Review of eye-movement measures in reading research. Advances in Psychological Science, 21( 4), 589-605.
[56] [ 闫国利, 熊建萍, 臧传丽, 余莉莉, 崔磊, 白学军 . ( 2013). 阅读研究中的主要眼动指标评述. 心理科学进展, 21( 4), 589-605.]
[57] Yan M., Pan J. E., Bélanger N. N., & Shu H . ( 2015). Chinese deaf readers have early access to parafoveal semantics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41( 1), 254-261.
pmid: 4286537 url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/xlm0000035
[58] Zhang J., McBride-Chang C., Wong A. M. Y., Tardif T., Shu H., & Zhang Y. P . ( 2014). Longitudinal correlates of reading comprehension difficulties in Chinese children. Reading and Writing, 27( 3), 481-501.
url: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11145-013-9453-4
[59] Zhang, M.L., &Du X.X . ( 2011). A review of the researches into hearing-impaired students’ reading strategies. Chinese Journal of Special Education,( 7), 49-59.
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/zgtsjy201107010
[59] [ 张茂林, 杜晓新 . ( 2011). 听力障碍学生阅读策略研究概述. 中国特殊教育, ( 7), 49-59.]
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/zgtsjy201107010
[60] Zhang X. M., Zhu D. Q., Zhang H. T., Shen J. L., & Lin C. D . ( 2006). The effect of pupils' visual attention on reading efficiency. Educational Research and Experiment,( 5), 59-63.
[60] [ 张学民, 朱冬青, 张慧婷, 申继亮, 林崇德 . ( 2006). 小学生视觉注意能力对阅读效率的影响. 教育研究与实验, ( 5), 59-63.]
[1] LIU Zhifang, ZHANG Zhijun, PAN Yun, TONG Wen, SU Heng.  The characteristics of visual word encoding in preview and fixation frames during Chinese reading: Evidences from disappearing text[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(7): 853-865.
[2] ZHANG Fan, LI Degao.  Deaf students’ syntactic awareness of the “shi…de” construction in sentence reading[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(11): 1383-1391.
[3] LIU Zhifang; ZHANG Zhijun; YANG Guifang. Test the activation model of transforming characters to words in Chinese reading: Evidence from delay word-boundary effects[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(9): 1082-1092.
[4] SU Heng; LIU Zhifang; CAO Liren. The effects of word frequency and word predictability in preview and their implications for word segmentation in Chinese reading: Evidence from eye movements[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(6): 625-636.
[5] WANG Aijun; SHEN Lu; CHI Yingying; LIU Xiaole; CHEN Qi; ZHANG Ming. Interaction between spatial domain and spatial reference frame in deaf and hearing populations[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(2): 153-162.
[6] WANG Fuxing; LI Wenjing; YAN Zhiqiang; DUAN Zhaohui; LI Hui. Children’s Attention Detection to Snakes: Evidence from Eye Movements[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(6): 774-786.
[7] YAN Guoli; LIU Nina; LIANG Feifei; LIU Zhifang; BAI Xuejun. The Comparison of Eye Movements between Chinese Children and Adults When Reading Disappearing Text[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(3): 300-318.
[8] BAI Xuejun; WANG Yongsheng; GUO Zhiying; GAO Xiaolei; YAN Guoli. The Preview of Word N+2 Influences the High Frequency Word N+1 Processing in Chinese Reading[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(2): 143-156.
[9] WANG Fuxing; DUAN Zhaohui; ZHOU Zongkui; CHEN Jun. The Spatial Contiguity Effect in Multimedia Learning: The Role of Cueing[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(2): 224-233.
[10] LIU Zhifang;YAN Guoli;ZHANG Zhijun;PAN Yun;YANG Guifang. Preview Benefits and Word Segmentations When Reading Chinese[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(6): 614-625.
[11] WANG Qiandong;HU Chao;FU Genyue. An Eye-tracking Research on the Other Race Effect During Face Processing in Preschool Children[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(2): 169-178.
[12] WANG Xiang-Bo,DAI Xiao-Dong,DING Jin-Hong. The Effect of Mass Representation and Oculomotor Overshoot on “Representational Momentum”[J]. , 2012, 44(7): 896-909.
[13] GAO Xiao,WANG Quan-Chuan,CHEN Hong,WANG Bao-Ying,ZHAO Guang. Time Course of Attentional Bias Components Toward Body-shape Related Pictures Among Women with Fat Negative Physical Self: An Eye Movement Study[J]. , 2012, 44(4): 498-510.
[14] REN Gui-Qin,HAN Yu-Chang,YU Ze. The Activation of Orthography and Phonology During Chinese Sentence Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements[J]. , 2012, 44(4): 427-434.
[15] QIU Li-Jing;WANG Sui-Ping;CHEN Hsuan-Chih. Pronoun Processing during Language Comprehension:The Effects of Distance and Gender Stereotype[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2012, 44(10): 1279-1288.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech