Please wait a minute...
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (6) : 606-621     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00606
Reports of Empirical Studies |
Effects of predictability on the time course of identity information and location information in Chinese word recognition
Erjia XU,Xue SUI()
Collaborative Innovation Center for Healthy Personality Assessment and Training of Children and Adolescents, Dalian 116029, China
Download: PDF(436 KB)   HTML Review File (1 KB) 
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info
Guide   
Abstract  

In the process of word recognition, the encoding of letter identity and letter location information plays a vital role. Many English studies found that the letter location information is more flexible than letter identity information. And context predictability has a different effect on letter location and identity information. Chinese word consists of meaningful morpheme, so the encoding of Chinese character identity and location information may have different features from English letter. In present study, we discussed the effect and the time course of predictability on the encoding of Chinese character identity and location information.

In order to explore the morpheme processing, the present study recruited 20 students as participants in experiment 1, and instructed them to do the lexical decision task. We used 5 types of word (original word, transposed non-word, initial substituted non-word, final substituted non-word and unmeaning symbol) as prime words when the prime time is 80 ms, 150 ms and 300 ms. We collected reaction time as the index. We found that the effect caused by transposed non-word is significant from that caused by original word under 80 ms and 300 ms prime condition, but it is opposite under 150 ms condition.

To study the morpheme processing in sentence, 50 participants took part in experiment 2, and was instructed to read high predictability and low predictability sentences. Each sentence included a different target word of 4 conditions which is original word(OR), transposed non-word (TN), first substituted (FS) non-word and end substituted (ES) non-word. The participation’s eye movement was recorded by EyeLink1000 during reading process. The results showed that the TN condition is not significant with FS and ES condition under high-predictability, but it is opposite under low-predictability.

To explore the time course of encoding of Chinese character location and identity information, we used the same materials as experiment 2 and manipulated parafoveal target word delay time for 0ms, 50 ms and 100 ms. We found that TN condition and OR condition are quite similar when the previewing is 0 ms, and the TN condition is analogy with FS and ES condition when the previewing is 50 ms and 100 ms.

On the whole, the data of the present study suggested that the encoding of Chinese character identity information and location information are separated. When Chinese words presented alone, the effect of location information is gradually reduced with the processing time increase. In sentence reading, location information is more flexible at the early stage in parafoveal processing. High predictability can promote the encoding of location information at early stage, and promote the encoding of identity information at later stage.

Keywords context predictability      location information      identity information      time course of processing     
ZTFLH:  B842  
Fund: 
Corresponding Authors: Xue SUI     E-mail: suixue88@163.com
Issue Date: 28 April 2018
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Erjia XU
Xue SUI
Cite this article:   
Erjia XU,Xue SUI. Effects of predictability on the time course of identity information and location information in Chinese word recognition[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(6): 606-621.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00606     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I6/606
启动时间 笔画 词频 字频
首字 尾字
80 ms 16.17 ± 4.46 0.26 ± 0.15 0.18 ± 0.30 0.23 ± 0.39
150 ms 15.50 ± 3.77 0.26 ± 0.22 0.20 ± 0.31 0.27 ± 0.48
300 ms 17.47 ± 4.35 0.21 ± 0.35 0.24 ± 0.54 0.25 ± 0.51
  
启动词条件 示例 列表
原词条件 经济-经济 List 1
换位非词条件 济经-经济 List 2
首字替换条件 吅济-经济 List 3
尾字替换条件 经吅-经济 List 4
无意义符号条件 吅吅-经济 List 5
  
启动类型 启动时间
80 ms 150 ms 300 ms
无意义符号 873 ± 132 801 ± 94 773 ± 125
换位非词 782 ± 122 634 ± 126 656 ± 119
尾字替换 737 ± 112 694 ± 73 664 ± 90
首字替换 803 ± 126 721 ± 85 758 ± 92
原词 741 ± 80 616 ± 83 569 ± 67
  
  
可预测性 词汇类型 句子举例
高预测性
词(市场)
原词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的市场并从中获利。
换位非词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的场市并从中获利。
首字替换词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的吅场并从中获利。
尾字替换词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的市吅并从中获利。
低预测性
词(经济)
原词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的经济并从中获利。
换位非词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的济经并从中获利。
首字替换词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的吅济并从中获利。
尾字替换词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的经吅并从中获利。
  
可预测性 词汇类型 句子举例
高预测性
词(经济)
原词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
经济状况和提高生产力。
换位非词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
济经状况和提高生产力。
首字替换词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
吅济状况和提高生产力。
尾字替换词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
经吅状况和提高生产力。
低预测性
词(市场)
原词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
市场状况和提高生产力。
换位非词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
场市状况和提高生产力。
首字替换词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
吅场状况和提高生产力。
尾字替换词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
市吅状况和提高生产力。
  
实验条件 首次注视持续时间(ms) 首次注视次数(次) 凝视时间(ms) 总注视时间(ms) 总注视次数(次)
HP-OR 292 ± 110 4.35 ± 3.14 570 ± 289 1362 ± 902 5.16 ± 4.28
HP-TN 299 ± 125 4.30 ± 3.05 574 ± 293 1338 ± 1120 5.37 ± 3.59
HP-FS 309 ± 124 4.30 ± 3.15 587 ± 227 1411 ± 933 5.40 ± 4.16
HP-ES 305 ± 116 4.26 ± 3.05 603 ± 350 1505 ± 1238 5.12 ± 3.51
LP-OR 292 ± 118 4.23 ± 3.26 572 ± 212 1362 ± 1103 5.29 ± 4.29
LP-TN 307 ± 121 4.27 ± 3.18 574 ± 299 1433 ± 1012 5.46 ± 3.98
LP-FS 309 ± 132 4.16 ± 2.94 586 ± 265 1399 ± 940 5.64 ± 4.67
LP-ES 305 ± 114 4.32 ± 3.29 629 ± 247 1413 ± 1043 5.25 ± 3.57
  
实验条件 从目标词向前回视(次) 向目标词后的回视(次) 整句阅读时间(ms) 整句阅读次数(次)
HP-OR 0.16 ± 0.37 0.20 ± 0.40 5612 ± 2186 12.84 ± 5.88
HP-TN 0.22 ± 0.42 0.25 ± 0.44 5848 ± 2352 13.59 ± 5.08
HP-FS 0.20 ± 0.40 0.25 ± 0.43 6007 ± 2407 13.73 ± 6.15
HP-ES 0.20 ± 0.40 0.23 ± 0.42 5848 ± 2018 13.17 ± 4.63
LP-OR 0.19 ± 0.39 0.24 ± 0.43 5753 ± 2259 13.22 ± 5.69
LP-TN 0.22 ± 0.42 0.26 ± 0.44 6132 ± 2244 13.94 ± 5.43
LP-FS 0.23 ± 0.42 0.26 ± 0.44 6090 ± 2529 13.54 ± 5.05
LP-ES 0.23 ± 0.42 0.27 ± 0.44 6302 ± 3055 14.49 ± 7.45
  
目标延迟条件 眼睛越过边界前后
0 ms 苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手吅和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界之前)
苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手机和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界
0 ms之后)
50 ms 苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手吅和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界之前)
苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手机和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界
50 ms之后)
100 ms 苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手吅和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界之前)
苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手机和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界
100 ms之后)
  
实验条件 0 ms 50 ms 100 ms
HP-OR 235 ± 13 241 ± 32 181 ± 12
HP-TN 229 ± 21 222 ± 23 174 ± 18
HP-FS 239 ± 20 254 ± 17 184 ± 17
HP-ES 238 ± 11 233 ± 16 190 ± 21
LP-OR 228 ± 10 227 ± 34 288 ± 19
LP-TN 238 ± 25 245 ± 21 288 ± 21
LP-FS 246 ± 13 221 ± 27 293 ± 32
LP-ES 247 ± 31 238 ± 25 291 ± 11
  
实验条件 0 ms 50 ms 100 ms
HP-OR 3.29 ± 0.72 3.34 ± 0.61 2.97 ± 0.67
HP-TN 3.39 ± 0.83 3.60 ± 0.43 3.06 ± 0.99
HP-FS 3.49 ± 0.92 3.43 ± 0.64 3.21 ± 0.72
HP-ES 3.37 ± 0.45 3.64 ± 0.83 3.09 ± 0.68
LP-OR 3.53 ± 1.03 3.85 ± 0.52 4.21 ± 0.55
LP-TN 3.69 ± 0.99 3.77 ± 0.81 4.24 ± 0.64
LP-FS 3.78 ± 0.80 3.79 ± 0.89 4.43 ± 0.53
LP-ES 3.75 ± 0.82 3.89 ± 0.71 4.26 ± 0.65
  
实验条件 0 ms 50 ms 100 ms
HP-OR 1121 ± 95 1254 ± 117 1080 ± 78
HP-TN 1274 ± 112 1306 ± 130 1151 ± 84
HP-FS 1316 ± 116 1398 ± 122 1201 ± 96
HP-ES 1314 ± 118 1310 ± 109 1172 ± 90
LP-OR 1383 ± 111 1532 ± 140 1224 ± 95
LP-TN 1431 ± 119 1465 ± 131 1222 ± 99
LP-FS 1487 ± 140 1509 ± 141 1528 ± 113
LP-ES 1451 ± 123 1495 ± 158 1404 ± 108
  
实验条件 0 ms 50 ms 100 ms
HP-OR 4.43 ± 1.76 4.97 ± 1.75 3.65 ± 1.0
HP-TN 4.90 ± 1.11 5.27 ± 1.60 3.76 ± 1.7
HP-FS 5.07 ± 1.27 5.42 ± 1.21 3.87 ± 1.4
HP-ES 4.94 ± 1.88 5.25 ± 1.97 3.87 ± 1.8
LP-OR 5.04 ± 1.73 5.24 ± 1.35 4.55 ± 1.5
LP-TN 5.22 ± 1.82 5.75 ± 1.44 4.72 ± 3.4
LP-FS 5.24 ± 1.33 6.09 ± 1.47 6.05 ± 1.7
LP-ES 5.12 ± 1.56 5.88 ± 1.62 5.23 ± 1.6
  
[1] Bian Q., Cui L., & Yan G. L . ( 2010). Effects of the transposed morpheme on the Chinese sentence reading: evidence from eye movement data. Psychological Research, 3, 29-35.
[1] [ 卞迁, 崔磊, 闫国利 . ( 2010). 词素位置颠倒对汉语句子阅读影响的眼动研究. 心理研究, 3, 29-35.]
[2] Blythe H. I., Johnson R. L., Liversedge S. P., & Rayner K . ( 2014). Reading transposed text: Effects of transposed letter distance and consonant-vowel status on eye movements. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76(8), 2424-2440.
pmid: 24980151 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/24980151
[3] Cona G., Arcara G., Tarantino V., & Bisiacchi P. S . ( 2015). Does predictability matter? Effects of cue predictability on neurocognitive mechanisms underlying prospective memory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 188.
pmid: 25918503 url: http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4394705/
[4] Davis, C. J . ( 2001). The self-organising lexical acquisition and recognition (SOLAR) model of visual word recognition. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 62, 594.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2001-95014-128
[5] Davis, C. J . ( 2010). The spatial coding model of visual word identification. Psychological Review, 117(3), 713-758.
pmid: 20658851 url: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/reference/PMED?id=20658851
[6] Gomez P., Ratcliff R., & Perea M . ( 2008). The overlap model: A model of letter position coding. Psychological Review, 115(3), 577-600.
pmid: 2597794 url: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/rev/115/3/577/
[7] Gu J. J., & Li X. S . ( 2015). The effects of character transposition within and across words in Chinese reading. Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 77(1), 272-281.
pmid: 25139264 url: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13414-014-0749-5
[8] Gu J. J., Li X. S., & Liversedge S. P . ( 2015). Character order processing in Chinese reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 41(1), 127-137.
pmid: 25621586 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25621586
[9] Hua H. M., Gu J. J., Lin N., & Li X. S . ( 2017). Letter/ character position encoding in visual word recognition. Advances in Psychological Science, 25(7), 1132-1138.
[9] [ 滑慧敏, 顾俊娟, 林楠, 李兴珊 . ( 2017). 视觉词汇识别中的字符位置编码. 心理科学进展, 25(7), 1132-1138.]
[10] Inhoff A. W., & Radach R . ( 2014). Parafoveal preview benefits during silent and oral reading: Testing the parafoveal information extraction hypothesis. Visual Cognition, 22(3-4), 354-376.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2014-12995-007
[11] Inhoff A. W., & Wu C. L . ( 2005). Eye movements and the identification of spatially ambiguous words during Chinese sentence reading. Memory & Cognition, 33(8), 1345-1356.
pmid: 16615382 url: http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC2692231
[12] Johnson R. L., Perea M., & Rayner K . ( 2007). Transposed- letter effects in reading: Evidence from eye movements and parafoveal preview. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 33(1), 209-229.
pmid: 17311489 url: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/xhp/33/1/209/
[13] Kezilas Y., McKague M., Kohnen S., Badcock N. A., & Castles A . ( 2017). Disentangling the developmental trajectories of letter position and letter identity coding using masked priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 43(2), 250-258.
pmid: 27428877 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27428877
[14] Kretzschmar F., Schlesewsky M., & Staub A . ( 2015). Dissociating word frequency and predictability effects in reading: Evidence from coregistration of eye movements and EEG. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 41(6), 1648-1662.
[15] Liang F. F., Wang Y. S., & Bai X. J . ( 2016). Word spacing facilitates novel word's acquisition during Chinese reading: The modulation of within- word position. Psychological Exploration, 36, 403-408.
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xlxtx201605004
[15] [ 梁菲菲, 王永胜, 白学军 . ( 2016). 词间空格促进汉语阅读的新词学习: 词素位置的调节作用. 心理学探新, 36, 403-408.]
url: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical/xlxtx201605004
[16] Liu Y. P., Reichle E. D., & Li X. S . ( 2016). The effect of word frequency and parafoveal preview on saccade length during the reading of Chinese. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42(7), 1008-1025.
pmid: 27045319 url: http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4925191/
[17] Luke S. G., & Christianson K . ( 2012). Semantic predictability eliminates the transposed-letter effect. Memory & Cognition, 40(4), 628-641.
[18] Luke S. G., & Christianson K . ( 2016). Limits on lexical prediction during reading. Cognitive Psychology, 88, 22-60.
pmid: 27376659 url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010028516301384
[19] McClelland J. L., & Rumelhart D. E . ( 1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Ι. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88(5), 375-407.
url: http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ254473
[20] McConkie G. W., & Rayner K . ( 1975). The span of the effective stimulus during a fixation in reading. Perception and Psychophysics, 17(6), 578-586.
url: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/reference/XREF?id=10.3758/BF03203972
[21] Norris, D. ( 2006). The Bayesian reader: Explaining word recognition as an optimal Bayesian decision process. Psychological Review, 113(2), 327-357.
pmid: 16637764 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16637764/?ncbi_mmode=std
[22] Norris D., Kinoshita S., & van Casteren M . ( 2010). A stimulus sampling theory of letter identity and order. Journal of Memory & Language, 62(3), 254-271.
url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749596X09001077
[23] Perea M., & Carreiras M . ( 2006). Do transposed-letter similarity effects occur at a prelexical phonological level? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 1600-1613.
pmid: 17176663 url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17470210500298880
[24] Pagán A., Paterson K. B., Blythe H. I., & Liversedge S. P . ( 2016). An inhibitory influence of transposed-letter neighbors on eye movements during reading. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(1), 278-284.
pmid: 26032225 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032225
[25] Perea M., Palti D., & Gomez P . ( 2012). Associative priming effects with visible, transposed-letter nonwords: Jugde facilitates court. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 74(3), 481-488.
pmid: 22274995 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274995
[26] Peng D. L., Ding G. S., Wang C. M., Taft M., & Zhu X. P . ( 1999). The processing of Chinese reversible words - the role of morphemes in lexical access. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 31, 236-270.
url: http://cpfd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CPFDTOTAL-ZGXG199710001180.htm
[26] [ 彭聃龄, 丁国盛, 王春茂, Taft, M., 朱晓平 . ( 1999). 汉语逆序词的加工——词素在词加工中的作用. 心理学报, 31, 236-270.]
url: http://cpfd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CPFDTOTAL-ZGXG199710001180.htm
[27] Rayner K., & Fischer M. H . ( 1996). Mindless reading revisited: Eye movements during reading and scanning are different. Attention Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 734-747.
pmid: 8710452 url: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/1996-93888-008
[28] Sánchez-Gutiérrez C., & Rastle K . ( 2013). Letter transpositions within and across morphemic boundaries: Is there a cross-language difference? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 988-996.
pmid: 23543423 url: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13423-013-0425-0
[29] Schotter E. R., Angele B., & Rayner K . ( 2012). Parafoveal processing in reading. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 74(1), 5-35.
[30] Smith N. J., & Levy R . ( 2013). The effect of word predictability on reading time is logarithmic. Cognition, 128(3), 302-319.
pmid: 23747651 url: http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3709001/
[31] Su H., Liu Z. F., & Cao L. R . ( 2016). The effects of word frequency and word predictability in preview and their implications for word segmentation in Chinese reading: Evidence from eye movements. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 48, 625-636.
url: http://www.cqvip.com/QK/90117X/201606/669414939.html
[31] [ 苏衡, 刘志方, 曹立人 . ( 2016). 中文阅读预视加工中的词频和预测性效应及其对词切分的启示: 基于眼动的证据. 心理学报, 48, 625-636.]
url: http://www.cqvip.com/QK/90117X/201606/669414939.html
[32] Vergara-Martínez M., Perea M., Gómez P., & Swaab T. Y . ( 2013). ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency. Brain & Language, 125(1), 11-27.
pmid: 3612367 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23454070
[33] White S. J., Johnson R. L., Liversedge S. P., & Rayner K . ( 2008). Eye movements when reading transposed text: The importance of word-beginning letters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 34(5), 1261-1276.
pmid: 2662926 url: http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC2662926/
[34] Whitford V., & Titone D . ( 2014). The effects of reading comprehension and launch site on frequency-predictability interactions during paragraph reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(6), 1151-1165.
pmid: 24205888 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/24205888
[35] Whitney, C. ( 2001). How the brain encodes the order of letters in a printed word: The SERIOL model and selective literature review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8(2), 221-243.
pmid: 11495111 url: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/BF03196158
[36] Whitney C., Bertrand D., & Grainger J . ( 2012). On coding the position of letters in words: A test of two models. Experimental Psychology, 59(2), 109-114.
pmid: 22044790 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22044790
[37] Yakup M., Abliz W., Sereno J., & Perea M . ( 2014). How is letter position coding attained in scripts with position- dependent allography? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(6), 1600-1606.
pmid: 25023954 url: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13423-014-0621-6
[38] Zang C. L., Zhang M. M., Yue Y. Q., Bai X. J., & Yan G. L . ( 2013). The modulation of parafoveal processing on Chinese silent and oral reading. Studies of Psychology & Behavior, 11(4), 444-450.
[38] [ 臧传丽, 张慢慢, 岳音其, 白学军, 闫国利 . ( 2013). 副中央凹信息量对中文朗读和默读的调节作用. 心理与行为研究, 11(4), 444-450.]
[39] Zhang L. Y., Jin T., & Tian Z. X . ( 2013). Morphological processing: Morpho-orthographic or morpho-semantic? Psychological Science, 36, 576-579.
[39] [ 张玲燕, 金檀, 田朝霞 . ( 2013). 词素认知加工——基于形式还是基于语义?. 心理科学, 36, 576-579.]
[1] ZHANG Xue-Min,YAO Lin,LU Xue-Ming. The Role of Location and Trajectory Information in the Recovery of Moving Objects[J]. , 2008, 40(01): 1-7.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech