Please wait a minute...
Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, Vol. 50 Issue (5) : 494-503     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00494
|
 The influence of testimony’s confidence and exploration on 5-year-old children’s causal inference
 LIU Yanling1; ZENG Xiaoqing2; ZUO Ling3; HUANG Lehui1; CHEN Shuiping1; HU Zhujing2
 (1 Department of Education, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330038, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Jiangxi Normal University; Key Laboratory of Psychology and Cognition Science, Ministry by Jiangxi Province, Nanchang 330022, China) (3 BaYi kindergarten of Jiangxi province, Nanchang 330008, China)
Download: PDF(493 KB)   Review File (1 KB) 
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks     Supporting Info
Guide   
Abstract   The knowledge of statistical information, experimental results and informant’s testimonies can provide important help for children to understand science world. In the past decade, the psychological mechanism of the interaction of the three kinds of information in children's scientific thinking has not been elucidated. In this study, research paradigm from Bridgers et al. (2016) had been used to explore the interaction of independent exploration and informant testimony on physical causal reasoning of 5-year-old children. Moreover, children's perception of testimony's reliability and informant's self-awareness had been analyzed simultaneously. The proposed approach is supported by two experiments which can be summarized as follows. Experiment 1 adopted a 2×2 completely randomized design. The independent variable is the confidence of testimony (two levels: self-confidence, not-confidence) and the number of children’s independent exploration (two levels: no-exploration, nine-exploration). The dependent variable is the frequency of children's choice of candidate cause. Informant's testimony (such as A is more likely to cause an effect than B) was given by an adult female in a laptop, and children played with a music box to get evidences contradicting testimony (B is more likely to cause an effect than A). In this paper, 84 preschool children (50 boys and 34 girls, mean age 63.7 months) took part in experiment 1. The results show that there are more children choose cause contradicting testimony in nine-exploration level than in no-exploration level, but the difference between treatments was not statistically significant. Moreover, children are not sensitive to the testimony's reliability and informant's self-awareness. Experiment 1 found that the evidences support cause B did not significantly improved child's choice of cause B, in condition that testimony support cause A. The possible reason is the amount of evidence that support cause B is too small. To test this hypothesis, Experiment 2 used a big amount of evidence that support cause B to explore the interaction of independent exploration and informant’s testimony. A single factor completely random experimental design was adopted in experiment 2, and the independent variable is the confidence of testimony (two levels: self-confidence, not-confidence). Experimental procedure is the same as the nine-exploration level in experiment 1. There were 54 preschool children (28 boys and 26 girls, mean age 63.9 months) took part in experiment 2, and each child independently played with a music box eighteen times. The results show that children are more likely to choose cause contradicting testimony in the eighteen-exploration level than in no-exploration level (experiment 1). Once again, children are not sensitive to testimony's reliability and informant's self-awareness. The results of two experiments indicate that 5-year-old children can integrate the evidence from independent exploration and the testimony from informant to infer causality relationship. The number of children who choose cause contradicting testimony is increased by the increase in the number of evidence contradicting testimony. The follow-up research should focus on the interaction effect between the exploration of preschool child, the results of adult’s experiment and the testimony from informants, and focus on how to motivate children to evaluate adult’s self-awareness and credibility.
Keywords preschool      independent exploration      confidence of testimony      conflict evidence      causal inference     
ZTFLH:     
  B844  
Fund: 
Corresponding Authors: HU Zhujing, E-mail: huzjing@ jxnu.edu.cn     E-mail: E-mail: huzjing@ jxnu.edu.cn
Issue Date: 31 March 2018
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
LIU Yanling
ZENG Xiaoqing
ZUO Ling
HUANG Lehui
CHEN Shuiping
HU Zhujing
Cite this article:   
LIU Yanling,ZENG Xiaoqing,ZUO Ling, et al.  The influence of testimony’s confidence and exploration on 5-year-old children’s causal inference[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(5): 494-503.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00494     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2018/V50/I5/494
[1] LIU Yanling, CHEN Jun, SHEN Youtian, HU Zhujing.  The promotion of frequency tree type and questioning format on causal strength estimation[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(4): 400-412.
[2] LI Tingyu; LIU Li; ZHU Liqi. 4~6 year-old children’s trust in economic game and its influencing factors[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(1): 17-27.
[3] QIAN Miao; ZHOU Lixia; LU Tiantian; WENG Mengxing; FU Genyue. Theoretical Construction and Empirical Research on A Preschooler-friendly Implicit Association Test[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(7): 903-913.
[4] WANG Fuxing; LI Wenjing; YAN Zhiqiang; DUAN Zhaohui; LI Hui. Children’s Attention Detection to Snakes: Evidence from Eye Movements[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(6): 774-786.
[5] LIANG Zongbao;ZHANG Guangzhen;DENG Huihua;SONG Yuan;ZHENG Wenming. A Multilevel Analysis of the Developmental Trajectory of Preschoolers’ Effortful Control and Prediction by Parental Parenting Style[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(5): 556-567.
[6] LIU Guoxiong. Development of Preschoolers’ Deontic Reasoning in Moral and Conventional Domain[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(3): 310-319.
[7] WANG Qiandong;HU Chao;FU Genyue. An Eye-tracking Research on the Other Race Effect During Face Processing in Preschool Children[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(2): 169-178.
[8] QIAN Yi;ZHAO Jing;BI Hongyan. The Development of Orthographic Awareness in Chinese Preschool Children[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(1): 60-69.
[9] LIANG Zong-Bao,ZHANG Guang-Zhen,CHEN Hui-Chang,ZHANG Ping. Relations among Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy, Parental Emotion Expressivity, and Children’s Social Competence[J]. , 2012, 44(2): 199-210.
[10]

WU Li-Mei,MO Lei

. Constructing Causal Inference for Local Coherence in Expository Text Comprehension[J]. , 2010, 42(02): 200-215.
[11] LIU Guo-Xiong,FANG Fu-Xi. Developmental Pattern of Preschoolers’ Naive Theory of Emotion[J]. , 2009, 41(10): 939-946.
[12]

FANG Fu-Xi,Henry M. Wellman,LIU Yu-Juan,LIU Guo-Xiong,KANG Rong

. Longitudinal Perspectives: The Sequences of Theory-of-Mind Development in Chinese Preschoolers
[J]. , 2009, 41(08): 706-714.
[13] Qin Sulan. Cognitive Development on Recognizing Goal-directed Action of Biological Kinds in 4-to-7-Year-Olds[J]. , 2007, 39(06): 1055-1062.
[14] Liu Guoxiong,Fang Fuxi. Development of Preschoolers’ Emotion Cognition Concerning Belief-Based Surprise[J]. , 2007, 39(04): 662-667.
[15] Liqi-,Guangyi-Liu. Preschool children’s understanding of illness[J]. , 2007, 39(01): 96-103.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech