Please wait a minute...
Acta Psychologica Sinica
|
Does Organizational Politics at the Workplace Harm Employees’ Job Performance? A Person-Organization Fit Perspective
GAO Zhonghua;ZHAO Chen
(1 College of Business Administration, Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing 100070, China) (2 School of Management, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100089, China)
Download: PDF(596 KB)   Review File (1 KB) 
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    
Abstract  

Organizational politics is defined as a social influence process in which organizational members engage in opportunistic behavior for purposes of self-interest maximization. It is typically not recognized by the formal rules and regulations in organizations, but is prevalent in the workplace. Previous studies have argued that employees’ perceptions of organizational politics lead to a variety of negative outcomes for organizations, including low levels of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, task performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors, yet recent studies have suggested that there could be a positive relationship between perceived politics and individual outcomes. Bozeman et al. (2001) have shown that individual reactions to perceptions of organizational politics are largely dependent on how the phenomenon is construed by individuals. However, there has been limited theoretical work that identifies the boundary conditions of the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational politics and individual outcomes. In this study, we develop a theoretical model based on the theory of person-organization fit. In this model, we identify the possible boundary conditions of the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational politics and their job performance, as well as the psychological process linking these two constructs. First, Machiavellianism is examined as a moderator. We predict that when Machiavellianism is high, the negative relationship between perceived organizational politics and job performance tends to be attenuated because high Machiavellianism seems to fit the high level of perceived organizational politics. In contrast, the negative relationship between perceived organizational politics and job performance tends to be stronger when Machiavellianism is low because of a lower fit. Second, organizational identification—a psychological process—is examined as a mediator. We propose that organizational identification not only mediates the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational politics and job performance, but also mediates the moderating effect of Machiavellianism on this relationship. To test our hypotheses, we collected paired data from 286 subordinates and their direct supervisors from five companies in the hospitality and tourism industry located in Beijing and the Henan Province. Two sets of structured questionnaires–one for the subordinates and another for their direct supervisors–were administered to avoid common method bias. In the subordinate questionnaire, we measured perceived organizational politics, Machiavellianism, and organizational identification. Specifically, perceived organizational politics was measured by 9 items adjusted from Vigoda (2001). Machiavellianism was measured by 16 items adapted from Dahling, Whitaker, and Levy (2009). Organizational identification was measured by 5 items adapted from Smidts, Pruyn, and Van Riel (2001). In the supervisor questionnaire, we measured subordinates’ task performance and organizational citizenship behavior-individuals (OCBI) using 6 items from Williams and Anderson (1991). Cronbach's alpha coefficients for these measures range from 0.71 to 0.84, above the recommended value of 0.70. This indicates acceptable reliabilities for all of the measures in this study. Results from a hierarchical regression analysis show that employees’ perceptions of organizational politics have significant negative effects on both task performance and OCBI. Machiavellianism moderates the above relationship such that the higher employee’s Machiavellianism, the weaker the negative effects of perceived organizational politics on both task performance and OCBI. In particular, the negative effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance turns positive for employees who are high on Machiavellianism. Organizational identification mediates the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational politics and job performance such that perceived organizational politics exerts influence on both task performance and organizational citizenship behavior through organizational identification. Results from a moderated path analysis reveal that organizational identification also mediates the moderating effect of Machiavellianism such that the interaction of Machiavellianism and perceived organizational politics exerts influence on both task performance and OCBI through organizational identification. In sum, in this study, we uncovered the relationship between perceived organizational politics and employees’ job performance by identifying a possible boundary condition and the psychological process. Our research helps to extend our understanding of the mechanisms of organizational politics at the workplace. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications, as well as the limitations of this study.

Keywords perceived organizational politics      task performance      organizational citizenship behavior      Machiavellianism      organizational identification     
Corresponding Authors: ZHAO Chen   
Issue Date: 25 August 2014
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
GAO Zhonghua
ZHAO Chen
Cite this article:   
GAO Zhonghua,ZHAO Chen. Does Organizational Politics at the Workplace Harm Employees’ Job Performance? A Person-Organization Fit Perspective[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01124
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01124     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/Y2014/V46/I8/1124
[1] CHEN Yingyuan;ZOU Zhimin; PAN Junhao. Effects of overqualification on employees’ organizational citizenship behavior: From the perspective of emotion[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2017, 49(1): 72-82.
[2] PENG Jian; WANG Xiao. I will perform effectively if you are with me: Leader-follower congruence in followership prototype, job engagement and job performance[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(9): 1151-1162.
[3] ZHANG Shuhua; LIU Zhaoyan. A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational identification and turnover intention[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(12): 1561-1573.
[4] XIE Jun; YAN Ming. Active coping or avoidance? The effect of proactive personality on the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behavior[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(10): 1314-1325.
[5] LIU Songbo;LI Yuhui. A Longitudinal Study on the Impact Mechanism of Employees’ Boundary Spanning Behavior: Roles of Centrality and Collectivism[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(6): 852-863.
[6] ZHANG Huihua. Individual Emotional Intelligence on Task Performance: A Social Network Perspective[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2014, 46(11): 1691-1703.
[7] YAO Ruosong;CHEN Huaijin;MIAO Qunying. An Empirical Analysis of Influences of Personality Traits on Job Performance for Frontline Staff in Public Transportation Industry: With Work Attitude Acting as a Moderator[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(10): 1163-1178.
[8] REN Hao;WEN Zhonglin;CHEN Qishan;YE Baojuan. The Impact Mechanism of Work Team Leaders’ Psychological Capital on Followers’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Multilevel Model[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2013, 45(1): 82-93.
[9] WANG Zhen;SUN Jian-Min;ZHANG Rui-Juan. Effect of Leader Core Self-Evaluation on Follower Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Ethical Leadership and Collectivistic Orientation[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2012, 44(9): 1231-1243.
[10] YIN Jun;WANG Hui;HUANG Ming-Peng. Empowering Leadership Behavior and Perceived Insider Status: The Moderating Role of Organization-based Self-esteem[J]. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2012, 44(10): 1371-1382.
[11] TU Hong-Wei,YAN Ming,ZHOU Xing. The Differential Effects of Job Design on Knowledge Workers and Manual Workers:
A Field Quasi-experiment in China
[J]. , 2011, 43(07): 810-820.
[12] MA Li,JIAO Jie,CHEN Ai-Hua,JIANG Han. Differentiating Organizational Identification and Dis-identification of Employees Through A Nomological Network[J]. , 2011, 43(03): 322-337.
[13] SHEN Yi-Mo, YUAN Deng-Hua, ZHANG Hua, YANG Dong, ZHANG Jin-Fu, ZHANG Qing-Lin. The Impacts of Perceived Organizational Support and Perceived External Prestige on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Organizational Identification as Mediator and Need for Self-esteem as Moderator[J]. , 2009, 41(12): 1215-1227.
[14] WU Long-Zeng,LIU Jun,LIU Gang. Abusive Supervision and Employee Performance: Mechanisms of Traditionality and Trust[J]. , 2009, 41(06): 510-518.
[15] WEI Hui-Min,LONG Li-Rong. Effects of cognition- and affect-base trust in supervisors on task performance and OCB[J]. , 2009, 41(01): 86-94.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Acta Psychologica Sinica
Support by Beijing Magtech