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Effects of Nicotine on Implicit and Explicit Memory PDF (0KB)
2018-04-20
The relationship between relative deprivation and online gaming addiction of college students: A moderated mediation model PDF (0KB)
ZHOU Zong-Kui
2018-04-12
An Experimental Study On The Processing of Visual Negation PDF (0KB)
null
2018-04-12
“Soft Girl”and “Hard Man”—The Influence of Tactical Experience on Gender Role Cognition PDF (0KB)
null
2018-04-01
The Influence Mechanism of Parental Care on Depression among Left-Behind Rural Children in China: a Longitudinal Study PDF (0KB)
null
2018-03-01
Using game log-file to predict students' reasoning ability and mathematical achievement -- Application of machine learning
 
DOI:
Influence of Aesthetics on Unconscious Processing of Western Paintings
People prefer beautiful visual artworks. Aesthetic experiences to beautiful and ugly images are different. Studies on neuroaesthetics also suggest different neural responses to beautiful stimuli compared to ugly stimuli.. . .
DOI:
  25 April 2018, Volume 50 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
 Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: The halo effect and generalization effect in the facial attractiveness evaluation
HAN Shangfeng, LI Yue, LIU Shen, XU Qiang, TAN Qun, ZHANG Lin
Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2018, 50 (4): 363-376.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00363
Abstract   PDF (719KB)
 Even though people usually agreed that “a book should not be judged by its cover”, researches had repeatedly demonstrated that individuals spontaneously and very swiftly formed impression on others based merely on the appearance of their faces. Facial attractiveness is an important content in the first perception. Which had been linked to outcomes as diverse as mate choice, job hunting, and cooperation. Given these real world consequences of the first impressions, it is important to understand how these impressions are formed. Some studies found that facial physical characteristics, such as symmetry, averageness and sexual dimorphism, had a great impact on facial attractiveness. While different individuals have different experience, when faced with the same face in the same context, different individuals have different evaluations on facial attractiveness. Some researchers put forward a new theory, namely, the observer hypothesis, which demonstrated that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, the processing of unfamiliar facial attractiveness remained unclear. The goal of the current study was to explore how we processed the impression of unfamiliar facial attractiveness. 19 males and 27 females took part in the experiment one and 16 males and 22 females participated in the experiment two, each experiment contained two phases that were learning tasks and evaluation tasks. In the learning phase, participants firstly learned to associate faces with negative, neutral, or positive trait words or imaged the behavior of the individuals to form different impression, which was contribute to the same valence between the neutral face and trait words or sentence. When participants could evaluate the valence of the face correctly, they could proceed to the next phase. In the experiment one, 13 males and 25 females had passed learning phase and evaluated the original faces and the unfamiliar faces. In the experiment two, 12 males and 17 females had done the learning task and evaluation task successfully. And in the evaluation phase, extend of warmth, competence and facial attractiveness of the unfamiliar faces, which had 50% similarity with the learned faces, were evaluated. Both of the two experiments had the same results, which showed that there are two ways to form unfamiliar facial attractiveness: (1) the first one is that generalization effect occurred after halo effect, compared with negative familiar faces, positive familiar faces were evaluated more attractive, so did the unfamiliar faces that were familiar with positive familiar faces; (2) the second one is that halo effect occurred after generalization effect, unfamiliar faces which were similar with positive familiar faces were not only evaluated more positive but also more attractive. The results suggested that generalization effect occurred after halo effect and halo effect occurred after generalization effect were the two ways to form unfamiliar facial attractiveness. In conclusion, halo effect and generalization effect play an important role in the processing of unfamiliar facial attractiveness.
 Top-down goals modulate attentional orienting to and disengagement from rewarded distractors
ZHANG Yan, CAO Huimin, ZHENG Yuanjie, REN Yanju
Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2018, 50 (4): 377-389.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00377
Abstract   PDF (1043KB)
 The traditional distinction between exogenous and endogenous attentional control has recently been enriched with an additional mode of control, termed as reward history. Recent findings have indicated that previously rewarded stimuli capture more attention than their physical attributes would predict. However, an important question is whether reward-based learning (or value-driven) attentional control is fully automatic or driven by strategic, top-down control? Most researchers have suggested value-driven attentional control is fully automatic, not driven by strategic, top-down control. Although previous studies have examined the phenomenon of value-driven attention capture, few studies have distinguished early attentional orienting and later attentional disengagement in the value-driven attentional control process. Therefore, the present study employed a modified spatial cueing paradigm to disentangle attentional orienting and disengagement and manipulated the goal- relevance of reward distractors to investigate the characteristics of value-driven attentional control. In Experiment 1, rewarded distractors were goal-relevant, and we would expect the prioritized orienting to and the delayed disengagement from rewarded distractors (compared with no-reward distractors) to be evident when both were goal-relevant (i.e., part of the target-set); In Experiment 2, rewarded distractors were not goal-relevant, and we would expect prioritized orienting to and delayed disengagement from rewarded distractors (compared with no-reward distractors) not to be evident when both were not goal-relevant. Forty-eight participants (Experiment 1: 24; Experiment 2: 24) with normal or corrected-to-normal vision were tested. During the training phase, the four positions in the search display were all circles of different colors (such as red, green, blue, cyan, orange, and yellow). Targets were defined as a red or a green circle, exactly one of which was presented on every trial. Inside the target, a white line segment was oriented either vertically or horizontally, and inside each of the nontargets, a white line segment was tilted at 45° to the left or to the right. The feedback display informed participants of the reward earned (+10, +0) on the previous trial, as well as total reward accumulated thus far according to their responses. During the test phase, each trial started with the presentation of the fixation display (900 ms), which was followed immediately by the cue display (100 ms). After the cue display, the fixation display was presented again (100 ms), followed by the target display (100 ms). The target display was followed by a gray screen (until response). The feedback display at test informed participants only whether their response on the previous trial was correct. That is, no reward was provided during the test phase. Results showed that: (1) Across Experiments 1 and 2, we observed the significant main effects of reward. (2) In the test phase in Experiment 1, rewarded distractors were goal-relevant and we observed prioritized orienting to and delayed disengagement from rewarded distractors (compared with no-reward distractors) be evident; in Experiment 2, rewarded distractors were not goal-relevant, and we observed prioritized orienting to and delayed disengagement from rewarded distractors (compared with no-reward distractors) not be evident. The present findings demonstrate that: (1) In the training phase, participants have learned the effect of reward. (2) In the test phase, orienting to and disengagement from rewarded stimuli are modulated by current top-down goals. These findings provide a new perspective on the domain of attention to rewarded stimuli by indicating that even the early orienting of attention to rewarded stimuli is contingent on current top-down goals, suggesting early orienting to rewarded stimuli to be more complex and cognitively involved than previously hypothesized.
 On how conceptual connections influence the category perception effect of colors: Another evidence of connections between language and cognition
ZHANG Jijia, CHEN Xuqian, YOU Ning, WANG Bin
Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2018, 50 (4): 390-399.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00390
Abstract   PDF (798KB)
 According to linguistic relevance hypothesis (LRH), people have the ability to categorize the world that they have experienced, influenced by language and culture. Thus, researchers who agree with LRH argued that people with different language organizing experiences should have different world schemas.Some relevant arguments came from research on the relationship between color word and color cognition: color perception should be influenced by the physical properties of the light wave and the biological characteristics of the human eye, and also by language and culture. Although there is no clear boundary among the various visible light–waves from red to violet at the perceptual level, the continuous spectrum is divided into different color regions. In the literature, a “color category perception effect” was proposed that people were more likely to distinguish colors from different colors than those that landed in the same area. However, it has still lacked of discussions on the essential mechanism of this effect. Namely, it is still not clear whether this effect is a perceptual phenomenon or cultural phenomenon (i.e., effects from language application and language labels). Using perceptual task (Experiment 1) and classification tasks containing memory (Experiment 2 and 3), assumption that language application and language labels affect color categorizing was tested in the present study. In Chinese, there are clear and distinct language labels for colors RED, PURPLE, BLUE, and GREEN in Chinese, but intensities of relevance between RED and PURPLE and between BLUE and GREEN are different in everyday expressions (language application): connection of the mental conception (conceptual connection) between RED and PURPLE is much closer than those between BLUE and GREEN. With the boundary colors of the “red–purple” color pair (RGB: 255, 0, 255) and the “blue–green” color pair (RGB: 0, 255, 255) as base points, a vertical demarcation line was drawn on the RGB chromatography. Four color blocks of different lightness saturation levels were randomly selected, upon which two colors on both the left and right sides of the boundary were selected respectively. The distance between two neighboring color blocks (including two neighboring colors that are on either side of the color boundary) is equal on the chromatography. In Experiment 1, three colors that have equal optical range constitute one set of experimental material. Participants were asked to judge as quickly and as accurately as possible whether the left or the right color block looked more similar to the middle one, and to press the corresponding button on a response box. 30 college students from the Han nationality participated in the experiment. In Experiment 2, materials were identical to Experiment 1 and 44 college students from the Han nationality were instructed to remember the colors and to identify as quickly and as accurately as possible whether the following colors belong to the left or to the right of the color pair, and to press the corresponding button on a response box.In Experiment 3, using identical materials, 44 participants were asked to judge as quickly and as accurately as possible whether the left or the right color looked more similar to the standard one, and to press the corresponding button on a response box. Results showed that intensity of conceptual connection effect was not involved in perception task, but in classification tasks and recognition tasks. Conceptual connection, rather than language labels, which might be triggered by comparison, was the main reason that affected performances of classification. According to the present findings, we believe that language labels and conceptual connection are both intermediate in color processing, and coding of colors in memory has a direct function in this process.
 The promotion of frequency tree type and questioning format on causal strength estimation
LIU Yanling, CHEN Jun, SHEN Youtian, HU Zhujing
Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2018, 50 (4): 400-412.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00400
Abstract   PDF (497KB)
 There are lots of evidences showing that participant’s performance on Bayesian inference, syllogistic reasoning and probability reasoning could be promoted by cumulative frequency tree. However, very few study focuses on the promotion effect of frequency tree on causal reasoning. This study carried out two experiments to investigate the effect of frequency tree on causal strength inference. The research hypotheses include: (a) Frequency tree featuring a explicit nest-sets structure (ENS) can improve the rationality of participant’s reasoning, while the frequency tree featuring a concealed nest-sets structure (CNS) can’t improve rationality of reasoning; (b) Participants estimate the causal strength of different contingencies by different modes in experimental treatment which used frequency tree featuring a CNS; and (c) There are more participants estimate the causal strength by Power–PC model in preventive contingency rather than in productive contingency. 2 (Frequency tree, level 1: featuring a ENS, level 2: featuring a CNS) × 2 (causal direction, level 1: productive, level 2: preventive) × 3 (contingency, level 1: DP = 0.33 and Power – PC = 0.5; level 2: DP = 0.33 and Power – PC = 0.83; level 3: DP = 0.67 and Power – PC = 0.83) completely random design were used in two experiments. 469 undergraduate students participated in Experiment 1 which adopted counter–factual question, and 463 undergraduate students participated in Experiment 2 which adopted ability question. Contingency was offered by a booklet which contains 30 pages, and each page presents one sample related to the causality. Participant completed a frequency tree based on contingency, and estimated the causal strength of contingency individual. The frequency tree featuring a ENS consists of three types of information: the number of total samples, the number of samples in focus set, and the number of samples that represent effect emerge or not, while frequency tree featuring a CNS consists of the number of total samples and samples that represent effect emerge or not. The study found that (a) There are three common models of causal reasoning: Dp, Power–PC and P (E/C) for productive contingency (or P(-E/C) for preventive contingency), the most popular model changes with different experiment treatments; (b) 70.06 % of participants estimate causal strength by Power–PC model when they used frequency tree featuring a ENS, and only a few participants (about 21.28 %) estimate causal strength by Power–PC model when they used frequency tree featuring a CNS; (c) The type of frequency tree and the format of question have combining influence on causal strength evaluation, and the type of frequency tree have more influences on strength evaluation than the format of question; (d) Both contingency effect and causal direction effect are present from the experimental treatment which used frequency tree featuring a CNS. Experiment results significantly support research hypotheses (a), (b) and (c). These results indicate that frequency facilitating effect depends on supply nest-sets structure or not, whether in counter–factual question treatment or in ability question treatment. According to above two experiments, it is suggested that participant tends to make rational inference when they use frequency tree featuring a ENS or they were questioned by counter–factual format.
 The role of morphological awareness in Chinese children’s reading comprehension: The mediating effect of word reading fluency
CHENG Yahua, WANG Jian, WU Xinchun
Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2018, 50 (4): 413-425.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00413
Abstract   PDF (642KB)
 Evidences accumulated in the past decades have documented that reading-related cognitive skills, such as phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and morphological awareness, play an importance role on Chinese children’s language and literacy development. The characteristics of Chinese, including its relatively simple phonological system, the almost perfectly consistent one to one to one correspondences among morpheme, character, and syllable, the predominant compounding structure of words, the great number of homophones and homographs, all make morphological awareness salient for Chinese literacy development. The structure of morphological awareness varies in different language systems. The comprehensive model of Chinese morphological awareness assumes three components: compounding awareness, homophone awareness, and homograph awareness. Studies on the development of Chinese reading suggested that the morphological awareness is more important for reading comprehension than both phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming. However, the mechanism underlying this phenonenon remains less clear. This longitudinal study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension. A two-year and four-wave cross-lagged design was used with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 male and 69 female). We measured children’s morphological awareness from T1 to T4, word reading fluency and reading comprehension from T2 to T4. In addition, we also measured the general cognitive ability, phonological awareness, and rapid automatized naming at T1 as control measures. A longitudinal cross-lagged panel model was conducted to investigate the role of morphological awareness in the reading comprehension and whether word reading fluency would mediate the association between morphological awareness and reading comprehension, when controlling for general cognitive ability, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming at T1, and the auto-regression. The present results showed that (1) the morphological awareness (compounding awareness, homophone awareness, and homograph awareness), word reading fluency, and reading comprehension increased with time. (2) The cross-lagged paths from the morphological awareness at T1 to reading comprehension at T2 (standardized β = 0.24, p < 0.01), from the morphological awareness at T2 to the reading comprehension at T3 (standardized β = 0.25, p < 0.01), from the morphological awareness at T3 to the reading comprehension at T4 (standardized β = 0.26, p < 0.01), were significant, even after controlling for the general cognitive ability, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming at T1, and the auto-regressive effect of reading comprehension. (3) The morphological awareness at T1 made significant indirect contributions to the reading comprehension at T3 via word reading at T2 (standardized β = 0.16, 95% CI [0.04, 0.29]) in addition to a significant direct contribution (β = 0.22, p < 0.05) after controlling the auto-regressive effect of reading comprehension and the reading-related skills among Chinese children. The results demonstrated the important role of morphological awareness in reading comprehension and the mechanism of the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension among Chinese young children. Specifically, there is a positive longitudinal effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension over and above continuity. In addition, it revealed significant indirect effects of morphological awareness on the reading comprehension via the word reading fluency. According to Automatic Theory in reading, most cognitive resources are spent on higher-level skills, such as drawing inferences and comprehension, if the processing of sub-skills became automatic. Possibly, children’s morphological awareness facilitates the accurate retrieval and integration of word meaning, and thereby influencs the reading comprehension. The currrent findings extend our understanding of the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension.
 The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation of negative marital events and marital satisfaction among older people: A cross-lagged analysis
YE Wanqing, LE Xiaotong, WANG Dahua
Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2018, 50 (4): 426-435.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00426
Abstract   PDF (403KB)
 When encountered with negative events, individuals’ emotion regulation plays an important role that can influence the adaptation outcomes. Regardless the theoretical origins of the definition of emotion regulation, the cognitive component is consistently addressed. Given the decline of health and sense of control and thus the lack of coping resources, older people tend to use more cognitive than behavioral emotion regulation while facing stressful events. Cognitive emotion regulation refers to the conscious and cognitive way of managing the intake of emotionally arousing information and dealing with stress. In this study, we chose the negative events in marriage as the stressful situation, and tested the adaptability of cognitive emotion regulation strategies by using depression and anxiety as the adaptive index. Besides, we used the Cross-Lagged Regression Analysis to examine the causal link between the marital satisfaction and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. We assumed that marital satisfaction would be influenced by the cognitive emotion regulation strategies. There were 615 elderly adults with an average age of 67.48 years (SD = 5.08) who participated in the first investigation, and 352 of them accepted a re-test two years later. The measures included the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Marital Satisfaction subscale, 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, 20-item Geriatric Anxiety Scale, demographic sheet, screening test for cognitive impairment, and the questionnaire of negative life events. The SPSS 22.0 was used for data analysis. The main findings are as followed: (1) the cognitive emotion regulation strategies including rumination, catastrophizing, acceptance, and putting into perspective could positively predict depression or anxiety among elderly adults; (2) Cognitive emotion regulation strategies from the first investigation set could not predict marital satisfaction at the reinvestigation. However, marital satisfaction at the first investigation could significantly predict the blaming of others and rumination at reinvestigation. Specifically, individuals who reported lower marital satisfaction tended to employ more strategies of blaming others and rumination. These results indicated that when facing negative events in marriage, using more strategies such as acceptance, rumination, putting into perspective, and catastrophizing would be associated with more depression or anxiety for older adults. Results also partly demonstrated age specificity, with younger participants displaying greater use of acceptance and putting into perspective as adaptive strategies. Contrary to our assumption, marital satisfaction can impact the cognitive emotion regulation strategies, which might due to that marital satisfaction is very stable in later life and it tend to predict rather than be predicted.
 When challenge stressors increase employee innovative behaviors? The role of leader member exchange and abusive supervision
SUN Jianmin, CHEN Leni, YIN Kui
Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2018, 50 (4): 436-449.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00436
Abstract   PDF (453KB)
 Innovation is often sparked by pressures. Researchers have made a great effort to investigate the relationship between workplace stressors and employee innovative behaviors. Yet, extant literature has not drawn consistent conclusions. Cavanaugh, Boswell, Roehling and Boudreau (2000) introduced the challenge-hindrance stressor framework. In this framework, challenge stressors are good demands that provide opportunities to learn and achieve, while hindrance stressors are bad demands that unnecessarily thwart personal achievements. Empirical evidence has consistently found that hindrance stressors are negatively related to employee innovative behaviors. However, the findings about the relationship between challenge stressors and innovative behaviors are mixed. Our study enlarges the previous findings and incorporates job resources from the leader, into the relationship between challenge stressors and innovative behaviors. Job demand-resources model indicates that when job resources can help employees meet the job demands, employees will embrace more positive work-related outcomes. High job resources can decrease employees’ resource depletion when they face job demands, increase the motivational functions of job demands, and thus enable employees to successfully accomplish job demands. As a type of job resources, leader-member exchange can alleviate resources depletion. When leader-member exchange is high, employees are able to allocate more resources to cope with challenging demands. Due to the increase of successful coping, challenge stressors can lead to more positive woke-related outcomes, especially employee innovative behaviors. Thus when LMX is high, the relationship between challenge stressors and employee innovative behaviors is more positive than when LMX is low. Moreover, the style of leadership behaviors may influence the suitability of the resources provided by leaders to employees. Our study further argues that abusive supervision, as a type of negative style of leadership behaviors, is more likely to influence the moderating effects of LMX. When abusive supervision is high, leaders convey “mixed information” to employees with high LMX. Thus LMX cannot be used as resources to cope with job demands, or challenge stressors. In contrast, when abusive supervision is low, leaders convey “consistent information” to employees with high LMX. We collected two samples to test our hypotheses. For the first sample, the survey was administered in an energy drinks corporation located in China’s Beijing municipal. We collected the data at two time spots with a temporal interval of 2 weeks and the final sample was composed of 195 matched leader-employee dyads. For the second sample, the survey was administered in four companies. We collected the data at one time spot and the final sample was composed of 251 matched leader-employee dyads. The results consistently revealed that the interaction of LMX and abusive supervision significantly moderated the challenge stressors – employee innovative behaviors link. Especially, only when LMX is high and abusive supervision is low, the relationship between challenge stressors and innovative behaviors is significantly positive. Theoretically, our study contributes to the relationship between challenge stressors and employee innovative behaviors using job demands-resources model. Further, our study also contributes to the leadership literature that the positive role of LMX can be influenced by the leadership behaviors, especially in our study, abusive supervision. Last, our study enlarges the innovation studies that the interplay of work stressors and work resources is essential for employee innovation. Practically, our study contributes to employee innovation improvements. Finally, the limitations and future research directions were discussed.
 The impact of challenge stress and hindrance stress on employee creativity: The mediating role of self-efficacy and the moderating role of justice
ZHANG Yong, LIU Haiquan, WANG Mingxuan, QING Ping
Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2018, 50 (4): 450-461.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00450
Abstract   PDF (531KB)
 Owing to their distinctive nature, challenge stress and hindrance stress may have different effects on individual creativity. Drawing on social cognitive theory perspective, we conducted a longitudinal empirical study concerning with the relationship between challenge stress and hindrance stress and employees’ self-efficacy and creativity. We also examined whether these relations were moderated by distributive justice and procedure justice. Data were collected from 256 dyads of employees and their immediate supervisors in two divisions of a large enterprise. The questionnaire for employee in Time 1 included challenge stress and hindrance stress, job complexity, and demography variables. The questionnaire for employee in Time 2 included self-efficacy. Employees’ creativity was rated by their immediate supervisors in Time 3. Theoretical hypotheses were tested by hierarchal regression analysis with Mplus 6.0. Results of analyzing the matched sample showed that the relationships between challenge stress and both self-efficacy and creativity were not significant, and the relationship between hindrance stress and both self-efficacy and creativity was negative; where distributive justice was high, challenge stress was positively related to creativity via self-efficacy, whereas where distributive justice was low, this indirect relationship was not significant. The moderating effects of procedure justice on the relationship between hindrance stress and both self-efficacy and creativity were not significant. Extending previous studies, this research demonstrated that challenge stress and hindrance stress have unique influences on self-efficacy and creativity, the results clarified the relationship between stress and creativity in workplace from a new perspective. Second, by examining the mediating effect of self-efficacy, the results contributed to our understanding on the mechanism through which stress influence creativity. Finally, through investigating the moderating effect of procedure justice and distributive justice, we confirmed that there are bounded conditions of the effect of stress on employee creativity. Findings broaden understandings of the process by which and the conditions under which challenge stress and hindrance stress influence creativity. Furthermore, the results also revealed that social cognitive theory was more suitable for explaining the relationship between stress and creativity.
 Body and cognitive representation: Understandings and divergences
YE Haosheng, MA Yankun, YANG Wendeng
Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2018, 50 (4): 462-472.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00462
Abstract   PDF (380KB)
 What is meant by “body” here? There are many understandings about what the human body is, which promote a variety of research programs in cognitive science in general and cognitive psychology in particular. The classical information-processing model of cognitive psychology treated the body as a biophysical substance that is different from the mind as a mental substance. Therefore, as a science of mind, the body has always been ignored and relegated to the position of a “physiological basis” of the mind. The classical cognitive psychology is founded on the idea that brain is something like a digital computer in which the physical structure of the brain is like a hardware, and the cognition is a software. In other words, the cognition was assumed as a computation of a computer. Usually, computation is understood as the rule-governed manipulation of representations, therefore, it requires the assumption that the mind contains some cognitive representations of aspects of the objective world that is independent of our perceptual and cognitive capacities. The cognitive representations are abstract symbols and they are amodal and exist independent of structures and functions of the body. As if the body is only a “carrier” or “container” of the mind. In contrast, embodiment theories of cognitive psychology had tried to distance itself from the classical cognitive psychology, highlighting the pervasiveness of in cognition of bodily factors. Right now, there are many approaches and programs sailing under the banner of “embodied cognition.” A “moderate” or “weak” approaches to embodied cognitive psychology do not separate the body from the mind. They take the body as more in mind, and want to elevate the importance of the body in explaining cognitive processes. From the point of view of the moderates, cognition is in essence a kinds of bodily experience, and the nature of our bodies shapes our very possibilities for our thinking and feeling. For the moderates, cognition is still involved in mental representation and computable processing which are staples of classical cognitive psychology. However, the cognitive representations are not disembodied symbols, but are body-formatted or body-related codes. The “radical” or “strong” approaches to embodied cognitive psychology claim that cognitive systems do not rely on internal representations and computations. Human cognition should be explained without the ascription of representational mental states. Our cognition is essentially grounded in the brain as it is integrated with our body. The nature of our cognitive processes is determined by the specific action possibilities afforded by our body. Our cognitive system is for action, and about solving problems for the organism, not for forming cognitive representations. Cognition is essentially a embodied action.
2018
Vol.50
No.3 
2018-03-25
pp.253-362
No.2
2018-02-25
pp.143-252
No.1
2018-01-25
pp.1-142
2017
Vol.49
No.12 
2017-12-25
pp.1483-1624
No.11
2017-11-26
pp.1357-1482
No.10
2017-10-25
pp.1247-1356
No.9
2017-09-25
pp.1137-1246
No.8
2017-08-25
pp.995-1136
No.7
2017-07-25
pp.853-994
No.6
2017-06-25
pp.711-852
No.5
2017-05-25
pp.569-710
No.4
2017-04-25
pp.427-568
No.3
2017-03-25
pp.285-426
No.2
2017-02-25
pp.143-284
No.1
2017-01-25
pp.1-142
2016
Vol.48
No.12 
2016-12-24
pp.1499-1640
No.11
2016-11-25
pp.1357-1498
No.10
2016-10-25
pp.1199-1356
No.9
2016-09-25
pp.1057-1198
No.8
2016-08-25
pp.915-1056
No.7
2016-07-25
pp.757-914
No.6
2016-06-25
pp.599-756
No.5
2016-05-25
pp.457-598
No.4
2016-04-25
pp.331-456
No.3
2016-03-25
pp.221-330
No.2
2016-02-25
pp.111-220
No.1
2016-01-25
pp.1-110
2015
Vol.47
No.12 
2015-12-25
pp.1419-1538
No.11
2015-11-25
pp.1309-1418
No.10
2015-10-25
pp.1199-1308
No.9
2015-09-25
pp.1089-1198
No.8
2015-08-25
pp.963-1088
No.7
2015-07-25
pp.837-962
No.6
2015-06-25
pp.711-836
No.5
2015-05-25
pp.569-710
No.4
2015-04-25
pp.427-568
No.3
2015-03-25
pp.285-426
No.2
2015-02-25
pp.143-284
No.1
2015-01-26
pp.1-142
2014
Vol.46
No.12 
2014-12-25
pp.1793-1956
No.11
2014-11-25
pp.1603-1792
No.10
2014-10-25
pp.1413-1602
No.9
2014-09-25
pp.1223-1412
No.8
2014-08-25
pp.1043-1232
No.7
2014-07-25
pp.885-1042
No.6
2014-06-30
pp.727-884
No.5
2014-05-24
pp.569-726
No.4
2014-04-25
pp.427-568
No.3
2014-03-25
pp.285-426
No.2
2014-02-25
pp.143-284
No.1
2014-01-25
pp.1-142
2013
Vol.45
No.12 
2013-12-25
pp.1313-1450
No.11
2013-11-25
pp.1187-1312
No.10
2013-10-25
pp.1061-1186
No.9
2013-09-25
pp.935-1060
No.8
2013-08-25
pp.825-934
No.7
2013-07-25
pp.715-824
No.6
2013-06-25
pp.599-714
No.5
2013-05-25
pp.489-598
No.4
2013-04-25
pp.379-0
No.3
2013-03-20
pp.253-378
No.2
2013-02-28
pp.127-252
No.1
2013-01-25
pp.1-126
2012
Vol.44
No.12 
2012-12-25
pp.1563-1704
No.11
2012-11-28
pp.1421-1562
No.10
2012-10-25
pp.1279-1420
No.9
2012-09-28
pp.1137-0
No.8
2012-08-28
pp.
No.7
2012-07-28
pp.
No.6
2012-06-28
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2012-05-28
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2012-04-28
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2012-03-28
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2012-02-28
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2012-01-28
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2011
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2011-12-30
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2011-11-30
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2011-10-30
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2011-09-30
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2011-08-30
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2011-07-30
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2011-06-30
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2011-05-30
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2011-04-30
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2011-03-30
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2011-02-28
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2011-01-30
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