ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (5): 637-652.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00637

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (1苏州大学东吴商学院, 苏州 215021) (2苏州大学心理系, 苏州 215123) (3教育部人文社科重点研究基地−苏州大学中国特色城镇化研究中心, 苏州 215006) (4苏州大学东吴智库, 苏州 215006) (5佛山市经济管理干部学院, 佛山 528300)
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-09 出版日期:2015-05-25 发布日期:2015-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 田晓明, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(71302120; 71073108; 71102176) ; 中国博士后科学基金面上项目(2013M530270)和特别资助项目(2014T70548); 江苏省高校哲学社会科学研究基金项目(2013SJB6300082); 苏州大学青年教师后期资助项目; 苏州大学211工程资助项目。

Does Benevolent Leadership Increase Employee Pro-Social Rule Breaking?

LI Rui1,3,4; TIAN Xiaoming2,3,4; LIU Shishun5   

  1. (1 School of Business, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China) (3 Key Research Institute of Education Ministry-Center for Chinese Urbanization Studies, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China) (4 Dongwu Think tank, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China) (5 Foshan Economic Management Cadre College, Foshan 528300, China)
  • Received:2013-05-09 Online:2015-05-25 Published:2015-05-25
  • Contact: TIAN Xiaoming, E-mail:


采用情境实验(以126名在职MBA学员为被试)与问卷调查(以187名企业员工为研究对象)相结合的方法, 考察了中国文化情境下注重“施恩”的仁慈领导方式对员工亲社会性规则违背(PSRB)的影响效果及其边界条件。结果发现:(1)仁慈领导对员工PSRB具有正向影响; (2)组织不确定性对员工PSRB亦具有正向影响, 并对仁慈领导与员工PSRB的关系存在负向调节效应。当组织不确定性较高时, 这一关系较弱; (3)权力距离取向对员工PSRB具有负向影响, 并同样对仁慈领导与员工PSRB的关系存在负向调节效应。当员工权力距离取向较高时, 仁慈领导对PSRB的影响较小。不过就调节仁慈领导对员工PSRB影响效果的具体方式而言, 组织不确定性发挥着一种替代物的作用, 而员工权力距离取向则起着一种抵消物的作用。

关键词: 亲社会性规则违背, 仁慈领导, 组织不确定性, 价值观, 领导替代理论


For a long time, it has been held by both academics and practitioners in the field of management that the behavior of violating or breaking an organization’s formal rules displayed by employees is self-interested, deviant, and detrimental to the organization. In 2006, Morrison introduced a more nuanced perspective on rule breaking, suggesting that some type of rule breaking may be motivated by positive intentions and beneficial to the organization. She further developed and empirically tested the construct of pro-social rule breaking (PSRB). The present research employed a scenario experiment and a field study to examine the effect of benevolent leadership on employee PSRB by focusing on the moderating role of organizational uncertainty and employee values (i.e. zhong-yong and power distance orientation). The scenario of the experiment described certain situation in which an employee had to decide whether or not to break a rule by placing an urgent order for a large, important customer. The study used a between-subjects design in which benevolent leadership (high or low) and organizational uncertainty (high or low) were manipulated, resulting in four versions of scenarios. Totally, 126 part-time MBA students were randomly assigned to one of the scenario versions. At the end of each scenario, participants responded to four questions which were included as checks of the organizational uncertainty and benevolent leadership manipulations. Then, they responded to five questions that assessed the likelihood that they would break the rule. Finally, respondents completed a short survey that assessed zhong-yong and power distance orientation. The results of the experiment revealed that: (1) Benevolent leadership impacted positively on employee PSRB. (2) Organizational uncertainty related positively to employee PSRB and moderated the relationship between benevolent leadership and employee PSRB, such that this relationship was weaker when organizational uncertainty was high. (3) Zhong-yong and power distance orientation had significant negative influences on employee PSRB. Meanwhile, power distance orientation also moderated the association of benevolent leadership with employee PSRB in such a way that it was stronger for employees low (versus high) in this orientation. The sample of our field study consisted of 187 employees from enterprises located in South Jiang province. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the measures were from 0.73 to 0.95, showing acceptable measurement reliabilities. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated the discriminant validity of the measurement was also satisfactory. Results of hierarchical regression modeling replicated most of those findings in the scenario experiment except the negative effect of zhong-yong on employee PSRB. As to the specific moderating patterns of the moderators, results from the two studies consistently showed that organizational uncertainty worked as a substitute for benevolent leadership to increase employee PSRB, while employee power distance orientation acted as a buffer or neutralizer to weaken the benevolent leadership-employee PSRB linkage.

Key words: pro-social rule breaking, benevolent leadership, organizational uncertainty, values, substitutes for leadership theory