ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (11): 1215-1227.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01215

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

家人情感卷入对老年自我刻板印象的影响:基于潜变量增长模型的分析

徐冉, 张宝山(), 林瑶   

  1. 陕西师范大学心理学院, 西安 710061
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-09 出版日期:2021-11-25 发布日期:2021-09-23
  • 通讯作者: 张宝山 E-mail:zhangbs@snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(17BSH153)

Effects of family affective involvement on aging self-stereotypes: An analysis based on latent growth model

XU Ran, ZHANG Baoshan(), LIN Yao   

  1. School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, 199 South Chang’an Road, Xi’an 710062, China
  • Received:2020-10-09 Online:2021-11-25 Published:2021-09-23
  • Contact: ZHANG Baoshan E-mail:zhangbs@snnu.edu.cn

摘要:

本研究使用问卷法对257名老年人进行了历时1年的3次追踪测试, 采用潜变量增长模型与交叉滞后回归分析考察了家人情感卷入与老年自我刻板印象的变化趋势, 家人情感卷入发展与老年自我刻板印象发展的关系, 以及家人情感卷入对老年自我刻板印象的时序效应。结果发现:(1)老年人感知到的家人情感卷入在1年内呈线性递减, 而老年自我刻板印象呈线性增长; (2)家人情感卷入的初始水平负向预测老年自我刻板印象的初始水平与增长速率; (3)家人情感卷入的下降速率也显著预测了老年自我刻板印象的增长速率; (4)交叉滞后回归分析进一步支持了老年人家人情感卷入对老年自我刻板印象的总体负向预测作用。本研究为老年刻板印象内化的家庭过程提供了理论支持, 并对减少老年刻板印象内化、改善消极老年自我刻板印象的干预具有一定的实践价值。

关键词: 家人情感卷入, 老年自我刻板印象, 发展轨迹, 潜变量增长模型, 交叉滞后回归分析

Abstract:

With the aging situation in China accelerating continuously, learning how to maintain physical and mental health in old age and promote successful aging has become the focus of researchers. As the study on this topic progresses, more and more researchers are realizing that aging is not only a biological decline but also the result of an altered psycho-social structure in the form of aging self-stereotypes. As a prerequisite central process by which aging stereotypes influence individual psychological behaviors and physiological constructions, aging self-stereotypes increase the likelihood that individuals will activate stereotypes of the group to which they belong or identify and engage in stereotype-related behaviors, thereby directly influencing their expectations, goals, and behaviors regarding self-development. Previous research has shown that the “possible future selves” facilitate processes related to the stereotypical self-conceptualization of old age. The “possible future selves” often derive from various areas of the older person’s experiences. As the family gradually becomes the most important place for older adults to socialize, the experiences of emotional support and interaction from family members are likely to influence the expectations of older adults on their “possible future selves” and the internalization of stereotypes as they grow older. However, few studies have focused systematically on the effects of older adults’ affective involvement from family members on aging self-stereotypes. There is also a lack of exploration regarding the dynamic trajectory of the relationship between family affective involvement and aging self-stereotypes in a longitudinal framework. Thus, the present study sought to examine the developmental trajectories of family affective involvement and aging self-stereotypes in older adults and the causal relationship between the two.
In this study, a sample of 257 older adults aged over 55 was followed up for one year. The participants were asked to anonymously complete questionnaires. They were assured by the researchers that the study would be conducted purely for research purposes and that participation was voluntary. Latent growth modeling and cross-lagged analysis were used to examine older adults’ initial level of and growth in family affective involvement and aging self-stereotypes, respectively, as well as predict family affective involvement on aging self-stereotypes.
Latent growth modeling showed that older adults’ perceptions of affective involvement from family members decreased linearly during the follow-up period while aging self-stereotypes increased linearly. In addition, the initial level of family affective involvement significantly predicted the initial level of and growth in aging self-stereotypes among older adults. Specifically, the lower the initial level of perceived affective involvement of family members, the higher the initial level of aging self-stereotypes in old age. Older adults’ lower initial levels of affective involvement from family members also predicted more rapid growth in aging self-stereotyping. Finally, the rate of decrease in family affective involvement predicted the increases of aging self-stereotypes over time, that is, a steeper decline in the family affective involvement of older adults predicted a steeper increase of aging self-stereotypes. Similarly, cross-lagged analysis showed that family affective involvement negatively predicted aging self-stereotypes after six months.
Our findings suggest that developmental trajectories of aging self-stereotypes in older adults are influenced by changes in family affective involvement. This study expands the existing research on family affective involvement and aging self-stereotypes. A better understanding of the causal effects of older adults’ affective involvement from family members on aging self-stereotypes can also help ameliorate intervention programs designed to reduce the internalization of aging stereotypes and improve negative aging self-stereotypes.

Key words: family affective involvement, aging self-stereotypes, developmental trajectories, latent growth modeling, cross-lagged analysis

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