ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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作业中断对任务绩效的影响及心理疲劳的调节作用(工程心理学专栏)

陈悦源,方卫宁,郭北苑,鲍海峰   

  1. 北京交通大学
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-28 修回日期:2021-08-29 发布日期:2021-09-13
  • 通讯作者: 方卫宁
  • 基金资助:
    北京市自然科学基金-丰台轨道交通前沿研究联合基金

Effects of interruption on work performance and the moderating effects of mental fatigue

  1. Beijing Jiaotong University
  • Received:2021-05-28 Revised:2021-08-29 Published:2021-09-13
  • Contact: Weining Fang

摘要: 作业中断会对中断后行为绩效的产生影响,探讨不同疲劳状态下中断对作业绩效影响的认知机制将有助于完善和发展中断的认知理论。本研究采用事件相关电位(ERP),通过在不同心理疲劳状态下执行数学题任务中断、暂停中断和不中断的空间2-back任务,结合行为数据和ERPs结果,分析作业中断对任务绩效的影响以及心理疲劳在其中的调节作用。实验结果发现,中断后诱发的P200和P300振幅显著提高,作业中断使得中断后主任务的注意力资源下降,任务中断的无关信息干扰了主任务工作记忆,而疲劳状态则进一步加剧了中断对注意资源、工作记忆及行为绩效的负面效应。本研究在揭示作业中断认知过程及疲劳对其影响机理的同时,也支持了中断的目标记忆模型。

关键词: 作业中断, 工作记忆, 注意加工, 疲劳

Abstract: Task interruption has been known to harm work performance, especially on working memory-related tasks. However, little is known about brain activity patterns during task interruption and the moderating effects of mental fatigue. The impact of work interruption on behavioral performance after an interruption is mainly caused by affecting working memory (WM) and attention. Therefore, exploring the impact mechanism of interruption on work performance in different fatigue states will improve and develop the cognitive theory of interruption. Combined with behavioral and electrophysiological data, we adopted the event-related potentials (ERP) technique to explore the effect of interruption on working memory and moderating the role of fatigue on the interrupt process. We designed a 2 (fatigue: fatigue, non-fatigue) ×2 (task type: task interruption, suspension interruption) ×2(trial type: before interruption, after interruption) within-group design and added a non-interrupted baseline task as the control condition. The study randomly selected 20 healthy participants to perform math problem task interruption, suspension interruption, and non-interrupted spatial 2-back tasks in different fatigue states. A continuous performance test (AX-CPT) was used to induce fatigue before the fatigue session. The behavioral data results showed that the accuracy of the primary task is reduced, and the response time is increased after interruption. Compared with the non-fatigue state, the behavioral performance decline of the primary tasks in the fatigue state was more significant. The ERP results showed that the P200 and P300 amplitudes induced by the 2-back task increased significantly after interruption. The P200 latency in the fatigue state was significantly shorter than that in the non-fatigue state; the latency of task interruption was longer than suspension interruption; the latency of after interruption trials were significantly longer than before interruption trials. The P300 amplitude of the frontal lobe in the fatigue state was lower than the non-fatigue state. Compared with the non-fatigue state, the amplitude difference between trials after interruption was more significant under fatigue. Besides, the P300 amplitude induced by the task interruption was significantly higher than that of the suspension interruption, while the same effect did not appear in the non-fatigue state. In conclusion, the work interruption caused a decrease in the primary task's attention resources after the interruption. The irrelevant information of the task interruption interfered with the primary task working memory, and the fatigue state further aggravated the negative effect of the interruption on working memory and attention. This research revealed the cognitive process of task interruption and the mechanism of fatigue affecting it and supported the memory for goals model of interruption.

Key words: Work interruption, Working memory, Attention processing, Fatigue