ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


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张青1,2,3  王争艳1   

  1. 1首都师范大学心理学院, 儿童发展研究中心, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100048
    2 中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100101
    3中国科学院大学心理学系, 北京 100049 
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-23 修回日期:2021-08-16 出版日期:2021-08-18 发布日期:2021-08-18
  • 通讯作者: 王争艳
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31971006)、北京市科技重大专项“脑科学与类脑研究北方科学中心”配套(科研) (Z181100001518003)。

The Interplay of Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Temperament and Attention in Predicting Toddler Executive Function: A Two-year Longitudinal Study

  • Received:2020-09-23 Revised:2021-08-16 Online:2021-08-18 Published:2021-08-18
  • Contact: Zhengyan Wang

摘要: 为同时探究外部因素与内部因素对学步儿执行功能的影响机制,使用追踪设计,测量163个母婴对在婴儿6个月时的母亲敏感性、婴儿气质、注意以及24个月时学步儿的执行功能。结果发现:(1)婴儿期母亲敏感性、婴儿气质与学步儿执行功能之间无显著相关。(2)婴儿6个月最长注视时长能够显著正向预测24个月的工作记忆与延迟满足。(3)母亲敏感性能够正向预测气质外向性低的婴儿24个月时的规则转换任务表现,对气质外向性高的婴儿24个月时的规则转换任务表现的预测不显著。(4)母亲敏感性能够正向预测最长注视时长处于较高水平的婴儿24个月时的抑制控制得分;负向预测最长注视时长处于较低水平的婴儿24个月时的抑制控制得分。研究发现了针对不同特征的婴儿,母亲的养育敏感性对学步儿执行功能影响的差异,这对早期教育应该如何“因材施教”有所启示。

关键词: 母亲敏感性, 气质, 注意, 执行功能, 学步儿

Abstract: Executive Function (EF), proved to link to the prefrontal cortex, refers to a set of higher order cognitive and self-regulatory processes, including (a) inhibition, the ability to intentionally suppress prepotent impulses or habits; (b) working memory, the ability to hold multiple things in mind at once, while mentally manipulating one or more of them; and (c) cognitive flexibility or shifting, the capability to switch between tasks. However, relatively little attention has been payed on predictors of executive function across the first 2 years of life. One of the principal reasons is methodological challenge caused by toddlers’ limited sustained attention, poor language competence, labile emotional state and so on. The present study investigated infant predictors of toddlers’ executive function from an intrinsic and extrinsic environmental perspective. Maternal sensitivity was coded by observing free-interactive process between mother and children at 6 months of age (T1, n = 236). Infant temperament was assessed by mother report using Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised-Short Form (IBQR-SF) and infant attention was assessed by Screen Look Duration task at 6 months. Then, toddlers’ executive function were assessed by a battery of tasks including Multilocation Search task, Shape Stroop task, Reverse Categorization task and Delay of Gratification task at 24 months (T2, n = 191). The results indicated that: (1) there was no evidence for consistent correlations between distinct measures of executive function at 24 months. (2) There was no longitudinal association between maternal sensitivity, temperament traits at 6 months and later executive function at 24 months. (3) Peak look duration could predict working memory task and delay of gratification task performance at 24 months, which provide empirical support for the hierarchical framework of EF development, advocating early attention as a foundation for the development of executive function. (4) High levels of maternal sensitivity seemed to foster development of executive function among children with low levels of surgency in infancy. However, there was no concurrent links between maternal sensitivity and executive function among children with medium to high levels of surgency in infancy. (5) Interaction effects suggested that high levels of maternal sensitivity seemed to foster development of executive function among children with high levels of peak look duration in infancy. However, high levels of maternal sensitivity seemed to hinder development of EF among children with low levels of peak look duration in infancy. In all, our findings point to the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in toddlers’ development of EF. And the present study gives us some enlightenment about parenting. For infants with low level of surgency or longer peak look duration, maternal sensitivity plays a significant role in the development of executive function. For infants with shorter peak look duration, however, excessive sensitivity may not be desirable for mothers.

Key words: Maternal sensitivity, Temperament, Attention, Executive function, Toddler