ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报

• •    

弗洛姆人本精神分析的启蒙价值及其当代启示

郭永玉   

  1. 南京师范大学心理学院
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-23 修回日期:2021-08-09 出版日期:2021-08-12 发布日期:2021-08-12
  • 通讯作者: 郭永玉
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重点项目

The Enlightenment Values of Erich Fromm's Humanistic Psychoanalysis and it's Meanings in the Contemporary Era

Yong-Yu   

  • Received:2021-02-23 Revised:2021-08-09 Online:2021-08-12 Published:2021-08-12
  • Contact: Yong-Yu

摘要: 弗洛姆的人本精神分析学说综合了欧洲文化传统的理性主义、人本主义、批判精神和救世情怀这些基本要素。他一生的工作就是用理性主义和人本主义的标准和精神分析心理学的工具来剖析他所处的社会和身边的人,并探索实现理想社会和人的发展途径。这一事业的价值实际上是启蒙。弗洛姆作为20世纪的思想家,是在继承17、18世纪启蒙先哲们未竟的事业,为其同时代人的存在困境开辟道路,以使现代人克服人性中朝向未成年退行的惰性,走向理性和独立的前行之路。他从现代人的不安全感处境出发,深刻分析了威权主义、民族主义、消费主义的病理机制,进而提出了基于人本主义原则的社会改革方案。弗洛姆人本精神分析理论的启蒙价值对于21世纪人类发展问题的解决仍然具有启发意义。

关键词: 弗洛姆, 启蒙, 人本主义, 精神分析, 威权主义, 民族主义, 消费主义

Abstract: Erich Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis theory integrated the basic elements of European cultural traditions, including the rationalism, humanism, critical attitude and Messianism. His main work is to analyze the people in his community and the society where he lived, with the standards of rationalism and humanism and the methods of psychoanalytic psychology, and to explore the ways and answers to achieving the ideal society and human development. The essence of this work is enlightenment. As a humanistic philosopher in the 20th century, Fromm inherited the unfinished business from those enlightenment philosophers in the 17th and 18th centuries and opened up a way to the existence dilemma of his contemporaries, which, in turn, helped modern people overcome the inertia of human nature (i.e., regression towards child) and move towards rationality and independence. Grounded in the sense of insecurity that modern people had, Fromm deeply analyzed the pathological mechanisms of authoritarianism, nationalism, and consumerism, and suggested a social reform program, based on the principles of humanism. As aforementioned, Fromm profoundly analyzed the psychological mechanisms and the consequences that modern people relied on to alleviate or even eliminate the sense of insecurity by embracing authoritarianism, nationalism, and consumerism. Those behaviors and the underlying psychological constructs are seemingly getting serious nowadays, which highlights the depth and foresight of Fromm’s theory. Inspired by his theory, researchers have conducted empirical studies on the relevant topics in Fromm’s psychology. The findings of those works provide new evidence for Fromm’s theory that the enlightenment values of his humanistic psychoanalysis are still practically significant for the solution to human development in the 21st century. In his 40-year academic career, Fromm demonstrated how clear and steadily his social values and personal academic missions were. Given his contributions, Fromm should be known as an enlightenment scholar. According to Immanuel Kant, enlightenment is defined as “man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity.” It is so convenient to be immature! Enlightenment requires to know what we don’t know, discover what we haven’t discovered, exercise the right to criticism without any constraint, endure the loneliness of independence, and then to think ourselves as mature and responsible men. Only if the perfectibility of man indicated by philosophers exists and only if we human beings have room to improve, enlightenment will continue to play its role in people’s self-realization and function as a premise of human development. No matter an independence person or human beings, self-growth never ends on one hand, and to overcome the regressive inertia of human nature never ends on the other. As long as the above conflict exists, the task of enlightenment will never be completed, and in this regard, Fromm's humanistic psychoanalysis theory will continue to inspire people with its unique values and perspectives.

Key words: Erich Fromm, Enlightenment, Humanism, Psychoanalysis, Authoritarianism, Nationalism, Consumerism