ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


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  1. 1. 北京大学
    2. 北京大学心理与认知科学学院
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-29 修回日期:2021-07-24 出版日期:2021-08-07 发布日期:2021-08-07
  • 通讯作者: 侯玉波
  • 基金资助:

Confucian ideal personality traits (Junzi personality) : The exploration of psychological measurement

  • Received:2020-12-29 Revised:2021-07-24 Online:2021-08-07 Published:2021-08-07
  • Contact: Yu-Bo HouYu-Bo

摘要: 君子人格是中国文化(尤其是儒学思想)中的理想的人格特质,对于理解中国文化心理具有重要意义,但鲜有实证研究。通过经典文本的理论分析与心理测量的实证分析相结合的方法,选取《论语》中孔子对君子的论述编制初测条目,通过探索性和验证性因素分析、效标关联效度分析等实证研究方法(总样本量=1916),对孔子思想中的君子人格的内在结构进行了探索,并编制了具有良好信效度的测量工具。结果表明,孔子思想中的君子人格包含了智仁勇、恭而有礼、喻义怀德、有所不为、持己无争5个因素。此外还考察了其与大五人格、中国人价值观、自我和谐、合作与竞争人格倾向、亲社会倾向等效标变量的相关关系。

关键词: 君子人格, 儒家文化心理学, 孔子, 论语, 本土心理学

Abstract: Junzi (usually translated as “gentleman” in English while completely different from the meaning of gentleman in English) is one of the most important concepts in Confucianism and has a huge influence on the civilization of China and even East Asia. Junzi means a type of ideal personality, which was first used as a concept of personality traits and systematically described by Confucius. As a hot topic for thousands of years, Junzi was and is discussed by many researchers. We used modern psychological methods to conduct an empirical research on internal structure of Junzi personality. We selected all the sentences describing Junzi personality said by Confucius from the Analects of Confucius, and used them to establish a preliminary questionnaire containing 80 items written in modern Chinese language. In Study 1, we invited 499 participants to rate the extent which these items described their personality in 7-point scale, and conducted an exploratory factor analysis to explore internal structure of Junzi personality and develop the questionnaire. In addition, we invited two samples of 319 and 663 participants to fill in the questionnaire developed by exploratory factor analysis, and condusted a confirmatory factor analysis to confirm validity of the questionnaire. In Study 2, we examined criterion-related validity of Junzi personality by correlation analysis of Junzi personality, Big Five personality, Chinese values, self-consistency and congruence, cooperative and competitive personality and prosocial tendencies using two samples of 202 and 233 participants. In Study 1, Results indicated that there were five dimensions among 30 items in construct of Junzi personality, which were named as “Wisdom, Benevolence and Courage”, “Respectfulness and Propriety”, “Conversancy with Righteousness and Cherishment of Benign Rule”, “Keeping from What Should Not Be Done” and “Self-Cultivation Rather than Contentions with Others”. Results of confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the five-factor model of Junzi personality fitted well and all items had high loadings on corresponding factors. In Study 2, results showed that Junzi personality had significant positive correlations with (1) extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience as dimensions of Big Five personality, (2) Chinese values as a whole and their each dimension, (3) the flexibility of self, (4) containment, reciprocity and willingness to get along well with others as dimensions of cooperative personality, and (5) prosocial tendencies as a whole and their each dimension except public prosocial tendency. And Junzi personality had significant negative correlations with (1) neuroticism as a dimension of Big Five personality, (2) disharmony between self and experience and the rigidity of self, and (3) excessive competition as a dimension of competitive personality. While Junzi Personality had no significant correlations with (1) self growth and surpassing others as dimensions of competitive personality, and (2) public prosocial tendency. These findings indicated that the Questionnaire of Junzi Personality in Confucius’ Thought had good reliability, construct validity, discrimination validity and criterion-related validity, which helped to deepen the understandings of meanings and internal structure of Junzi personality and provided an reliable and valid measurement for quantitative empirical researches on Junzi personality and psychological insights in Confucianism in the future.

Key words: Junzi personality, Confucianism cultural psychology, Confucius, the Analects of Confucius, indigenous psychology