ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


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  1. 1. 湖南师范大学
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-13 修回日期:2021-08-04 出版日期:2021-08-07 发布日期:2021-08-07
  • 通讯作者: 向燕辉

The causal mechanism between envy and subjective well–being: based on a longitudinal study and a diary method

  1. 1. Hunan Normal University
  • Received:2021-01-13 Revised:2021-08-04 Online:2021-08-07 Published:2021-08-07

摘要: 追求幸福是人类永恒的话题。尽管影响幸福的因素很多,但社会比较是影响个体幸福感最为普遍的因素。基于社会比较理论视角,分别采用纵向追踪研究及日记法研究探讨了向上社会比较中典型情绪——嫉妒与幸福感的因果关系机制,并首次尝试建立了嫉妒与一般主观幸福感(SWB, Subject Well-Being)因子的循环假设理论模型。在研究一中,对290名参与者进行间隔1年的两次(T1和T2)追踪调查,探讨特质嫉妒与主观幸福感双因子模型之间的关系。研究结果显示:(1)T1的特质嫉妒可以显著正向预测T2的消极情感(NA, Negative Affect)和SWB因子,显著负向预测T2的积极情感(PA, Positive Affect)和生活满意度(LS, Life Satisfaction);(2)T1的一般SWB因子负向预测T2的特质嫉妒。在研究二中,进一步采用日记法对178名参与者进行了持续14天的研究,结果发现每日嫉妒仅能正向预测主观幸福感双因子中的NA。首次基于社会比较的理论视角,采用多方法学视角深入揭示了嫉妒与主观幸福感的PA、NA和LS之间的复杂因果关系机制,弥补了学术界在相关领域的不足。更重要的是,还首次自主提出了嫉妒与一般SWB因子的循环假设理论模型,对从社会比较理论视角去拓展、理解、重评SWB的社会基础提供了较新的思路。

关键词: 嫉妒, 主观幸福感, 双因子模型, 追踪法, 日记法

Abstract: With the rise of the Internet and the popularity of mobile phones, sharing life and flaunting happiness on Facebook and WeChat has gradually become the norm, which easily induces upward social comparison and leads to the generalization of envy. So, is there a predictive causal mechanism between envy and subjective well–being (SWB)? At present, there is no in–depth study on this issue. Therefore, based on the perspective of social comparison theory, this study used a longitudinal study and a diary method to systematically explored the causal mechanism between dispositional envy and subjective well–being. On the one hand, a sample of 307 young students participated in a two–wave study including the measurements of dispositional envy and SWB. We employed structural equation modelling techniques to assess cross–lagged effects between envy and the bi–factor structure of SWB (i.e., life satisfaction (LS), negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA) and the general SWB factor) in four models. On the other hand, a sample of 178 young students were selected again by cluster sampling method. After a fourteen-day diary survey, we used HLM 6.08 to construct a hierarchical linear model to study the effects of daily envy on daily PA, NA and LS, and then we tested the predictive effect of daily envy on subjective well–being with a combined amos24.0, latent growth curve model (LGCM) and structural equation model (SEM). The longitudinal study result showed that: in a long period of time, the dispositional envy of young students can positively predict NA (β=.599,p<.001) and general SWB factor (β=.827,p=.018), and negatively predict PA (β=–.854,p=.004) and LS (β=–.965,p=.006). The diary method result indicated that participants with higher levels of envy experienced greater fluctuations in PA (γ_10= –.21, p<.001) 、NA (γ_10=–.30, p<.001) and LS (γ_10=.248, p<.001) on a daily basis. We also found that in a short period of time, the initial level of daily envy had a significant effect on NA (β=.585,p<.05) throughout the study and the path from slope to NA (β=3.157,p<.01) also is significant. That means the dispositional envy of young students only can positively predict their own NA. Besides, this study results also showed that there was an interaction between envy and general SWB factor, that was, envy can positively predict general SWB factor (β=.952,p=.032), general SWB factor can negatively predict envy (β=–.454,p=.047). In conclusion, based on the theoretical perspective of social comparison, this study deeply reveals the complex causal mechanism between envy and PA, NA, LS of SWB from a longitudinal study and a diary method. In addition, on the basis of this finding, we put forward a circular hypothesis model of envy and general SWB factor for the first time, which provides a new perspective for exploring the predictive causal relationship between envy and SWB from the perspective of social comparison theory, and provides a new way for improving young students' well–being.

Key words: envy, subjective well–being, bi–factor model, longitudinal study, diary method