ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报

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身体的意义:生成论视域下的情绪理论

叶浩生1  苏佳佳2  苏得权1   

  1. 广州大学心理与脑科学研究中心
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-14 修回日期:2021-07-04 出版日期:2021-07-22 发布日期:2021-07-22
  • 通讯作者: 叶浩生

The Meaning of the Body: The Enactive Approach to Emotion

YE Haosheng, SU Jiajia, SU Dequan   

  • Received:2021-04-14 Revised:2021-07-04 Online:2021-07-22 Published:2021-07-22
  • Contact: Hao-Sheng

摘要: 生成论的情绪学说从“意义建构”的视角看待情绪的动力作用,主张情绪与认知相互交织,与有机体适应环境的身体活动密切联系。情绪是身体的情绪,身体是情绪体验中的身体。身体在情绪体验中扮演着构成性角色。根据这一观点,情绪是一种积极的行动倾向,是在理解环境意义基础上的具身行动。情绪并非发生于有机体头颅内,而是产生于大脑、身体和环境的互动与耦合之中。由于认知与情绪在生成论的视域下统一在有机体意义建构的活动之中,因而认知的4E属性也必然反映到情绪上,使得情绪和情感也具有了具身、嵌入、延展和生成特征。情绪的生成理论为了解情绪的本质提供了一个新视角

关键词: 情绪, 生成论, 意义建构, 具身认知

Abstract: Emotion may be considered some of the most complicated phenomena of conscious experience. This is mirrored by the variety of different and often opposing emotion theories in psychology. For many years, emotion theory has been characterized by a dichotomy between the mind and the body. Enactive approach to emotion, however, tends to treat emotion as a sense-making process by which the physiochemical environment is transformed into an Umwelt: a world that is meaningful for us. Emotion and cognition are interwoven in this process and closely related to the physical activities of the organism to adapt to the environment. Sense-making properly understood is neither passive information absorption nor active mental projection. Instead, our sense-making depends both on what is offered by the environment and on our bodily shape and action. Emotions are the emotions of our body’s, and the body is the lived body in the emotional experience. The lived body plays a constitutive role in formation of emotion. According to enactivism, emotion is an active action tendency, that means, living beings are autonomous agents that actively make sense of their environmental conditions, and bring forth or enact their emotional experience. Emotions do not occur in the organism's skull, but arise from the interaction and coupling of brain, body and environment. Therefore, emotions are simultaneously mental-physical, and bodily-cognitive, not in the familiar sense of being made up of separate-but-coexisting bodily and cognitive constituents, but instead that they blend with each other in the way of complete harmony and convey meaning and personal significance as bodily meaning and significance. Since cognition and emotion are unified in the activity of sense-making of the organism in the enactive theory of emotion, the 4E attribute of cognition must also be reflected in emotion and affective life, which makes emotion and affection also have embodied, embedded, extended and enacted characteristics: (1) Emotion is embodied, which means we do not just have a body to express our feelings and emotion, actually, the particular shape and nature of our body is what makes meaningful experience to our affective life. (2) Emotion is embedded. By virtue of being embodied, our emotive life is also automatically embedded or situated in an environment. Emotions are rooted in the environment and form a whole that is closely related to the environment. (3) Emotion is extended, that means the brain itself is not capable of producing emotional experiences, and the neural activity in the brain cannot fully explain the formation of emotions. On the contrary, other parts of the body contribute significantly to the realization of emotional experience in terms of biological, physiological, morphological, and kinematic details. Emotions therefore extend beyond the brain to the non-neural parts of the body. (4) Emotion is enacted. Emotional experience is not a state of perception, but a tendency to act. It conveys meaning to us and allows us to adopt a more adaptive intelligent behavior in the process of sense-making. Therefore, emotions are dynamic in nature, and emotional experience contains a motivational component. It is an active, intentional effort. In this sense, emotions are "doing" and manifest themselves as a tendency to act. The enactive approach to emotion provides a new paradigm for psychology of emotion. Thus, it opens up a new perspective for emotion research.

Key words: emotion, enactivism, sense-making