ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报

• •    

驾驶员选择性注意过程中的规则图式启动效应

袁璐一,常若松,马锦飞   

  1. 辽宁师范大学
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-23 修回日期:2021-06-07 出版日期:2021-07-16 发布日期:2021-07-16
  • 通讯作者: 马锦飞
  • 基金资助:
    L3自动驾驶车辆驾驶员被动疲劳的心理机制及调控研究

The influence of task feature hints and rule schema on driver recognition of traffic events

YUAN Luyi, CHANG Ruosong, MA Jinfei   

  1. Liaoning Normal University
  • Received:2021-02-23 Revised:2021-06-07 Online:2021-07-16 Published:2021-07-16

摘要: 本研究将驾驶无意视盲范式与交通违规事件识别任务相结合,通过两个实验分别探究任务性质(提示、无提示)和规则图式训练(训练、未训练)对驾驶员识别交通信号和违规事件的影响。结果发现,交通规则提示仅能提高经验驾驶员识别交通信号的正确率(实验一);对于新手驾驶员,规则提示需要结合规则图式训练才能起到相同效果(实验二)。这说明,规则图式是任务提示影响驾驶员识别道路信息的重要一环,图式训练可以弥补新手驾驶员经验的不足。

关键词: 任务性质, 驾驶经验, 规则图式, 交通信号, 无意视盲

Abstract: It causes a significant hazard to traffic safety the car drivers have been looking in the direction where the other road users were but have not perceived the presence of the other parties, which is called ‘looked-but- failed-to -see’(LBFTS)error. According to the research on attention, task-specific features can make observers form attention set to guide attention. However, can drivers be prevented from “ looked but fail to see ” key road information by giving them task-specific features? We assumed that task-specific features are only useful to experienced drivers because they have driving schemata. When novice drivers are trained in driving schemata, they can also improve their ability to identify traffic information with the help of task-specific features. The Tobii T120 eye tracker was used to record participants’ eye movements. Experiment 1 used driving IB task to investigate task-specific features' working conditions, and the driver's main task was to watch 10 traffic videos and score them.In Dalian, 76 drivers were recruited. The average age of participants was 25.25 years; the age range was 19–40 years old, and the standard deviation (SD) was 4.41 years. The study adopted a two-factor between-subjects design of 2 (experienced drivers, novice drivers) × 2 (task specific features: yes, no).The dependent variables were critical trial’s detection rate, total visit duration of traffic signal.Experienced drivers were required to drive a total mileage of 30,000 km or more, while novice drivers wre required to drive a total mileage of 10,000 km or less. Task specific feature was observed whether there are traffic violations. A traffic violation occurred during the critical trial, when the driver was asked whether he or she had seen a traffic signal after completing the main task. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of driving schema training.The driver's main task is to watch 30 traffic videos and score them. 66 drivers were recruited. The average age of participants was 24.92 years; the age range was 19–38years old, and the standard deviation (SD) was 3.85 years. The study adopted a three-factor mixed experimental design of 2 (experienced drivers, novice drivers) × 2 (starting condition of schema training: started, not started) × 2 (event cognitive salience, high: intersection with solid parallel lines;Low: unauthorized stop at "No Parking"). The driver type and the starting condition of schema training are inter-subject variables, and the event type is intra-subject variable.The dependent variable is the driver's correct rate of identifying two kinds of events and the total visit duration of searching for this event. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the inattentional blindness rate of experienced drivers with task specific features was significantly lower than that of experienced drivers without task specific features; however, there was no difference in vision blindness between novice drivers with and without task specific features.Moreover, the longer the total visit duration, the less likely inattentional blindness of the drivers. The results of experiment 2 show that the recognition performance of the drivers in the schema start group is higher than that in the control group.Total visit duration plays an intermediary role among driving experience, driving schema and the recognition rate of low cognitive salience events. For drivers, only giving task feature does not necessarily improve the visual search efficiency during driving, and driving schema plays an important role. Driving schema training can help task feature make up for the gap brought by driving experience. Driving experience and driving schemata can improve drivers' performance in identifying traffic information with low cognitive salience by influencing their search time for traffic events.

Key words: task specific feature, driving experience, driving schemata, traffic signal, inattentional blindness