ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报

• •    

外圆内方:中国人人际关系性的潜在剖面结构及其适应性

周明洁1,李府桂1,穆蔚琦1,范为桥2,张建新3,张妙清4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院心理健康重点实验室;中国科学院心理研究所
    2. 上海师范大学心理系
    3. 中国科学院心理研究所
    4. 香港中文大学心理系
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-19 修回日期:2021-04-20 出版日期:2021-04-21 发布日期:2021-04-21
  • 通讯作者: 张建新
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金

Round Outside and Square Inside: The Latent Profile Structure and Adaptability of Chinese Interpersonal Relatedness

MingJie ZHOU, , ,FAN Weiqiao,Zhang Jian-Xin,   

  • Received:2020-08-19 Revised:2021-04-20 Online:2021-04-21 Published:2021-04-21
  • Contact: Zhang Jian-Xin

摘要: 为进一步挖掘中国人人际关系性人格特质的内涵,研究采用“个体中心”的潜在剖面分析方法对1911名CPAI-2中国人的常模样本在人际关系性上的表现进行整体揭示。同时,为比较中西方人际关系性的不同,研究二探讨了非华人群体人际关系性的潜在剖面结构。研究三进一步在2580名大学生群体中验证中国人人际关系性上的外圆内方的潜在剖面结构,并探讨人际关系性的亚型以及哪种亚型的人在现代社会更具适应性。中国人群体的研究结果均呈现四分类模型,但这一分类模型并没有在西方样本中复现出来,并且研究三发现中国人群体中外圆内方的亚群体最具适应性。研究结合中国传统文化中的“君子人格”进行相关讨论,为当代中国人辩证统一的“外圆内方”的文化特异性的行为模式提供历史阐释及其当代生活适应性的证据。

关键词: 人格, 人际关系性, 外圆内方, 潜在剖面分析

Abstract: What is Chinese personality? This question has long attracted the interest of researchers. Joint factor analyses of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI), which was generated using a combined emic-etic approach, and the NEO-FFI, which measures western-derived Big Five personality factors, produced six factors. These correspond to the five factors from the Big Five Model plus an Interpersonal Relatedness factor (IR). These six factors constitute the “Big Six” personality structure that describes and explains Chinese personality or behavior. IR is a culturally specific personality dimension that is closely related to traditional Chinese culture. The existence of IR has been confirmed by a large number of studies, but its connotations need to be further explored and refined. This paper discussed the subtypes of the Chinese IR personality trait from a quantitative perspective and further explored which subtype of IR was more adaptive. The study adopted a “person-centered approach” to reveal the overall nature of IR in Chinese people. In Study 1, 1911 participants of the CPAI-2 normative sample were analyzed with latent profile analysis (LPA) in terms of six dimensions of IR – Ren Qing (Relationship Orientation), Harmony, Interpersonal Sensitivity, Discipline, Thrift vs. Extravagance, and Traditionalism vs. Modernity – to explore the potential subtypes of IR. In Study 2, 200 white people were investigated to explore the latent profile structure of Interpersonal Relatedness in non-Chinese people. In Study 3, 2580 juniors from a comprehensive university were investigated to verify the potential structure of IR obtained in Study 1. The LPA method with outcome variables (BCH method) was used to investigate the social adaptability of different subtypes of college students in the potential structure of IR in terms of academic performance, knowledge sharing behavior, and mental health. The results of study 1 showed that the fourfold classification model of IR had the best fitting index. The fourfold classification model was specifically composed of high and low scores of “round outside” (including three potential personality constructs of Ren Qing, Harmony, and Interpersonal Sensitivity) and “square inside” (including three potential personality constructs of Discipline, Thrift vs. Extravagance, and Traditionalism vs. Modernity). The four subtypes were “gentlemen” who were round outside and square inside, pedantic persons who were non-round outside and square inside, two-faced persons who were non-round outside and non-square inside, and hypocrites who were round outside and non-square inside. The fourfold classification model showed that the latent profile structure of the Chinese IR personality trait involved the dialectical unity of “round outside” and “square inside.” The results of study 2 showed that the latent profile structure of the four categories of "round outside and square inside" did not appear in the Western samples, which reflected the Chinese cultural specificity of the "round outside and square inside" latent profile of Interpersonal Relatedness. The results of study 3 verified the fourfold classification model of study 1. The results of BCH in study 3 found that among the four subgroups, the subgroup of “round outside and square inside” had better academic performance, higher levels of mental health, and more knowledge sharing behaviors, which indicated that this subgroup was the most adaptable in modern society. The results are discussed in relation to traditional Chinese culture, especially regarding the characteristics of the Confucian “gentleman personality.” The research provides a rich historical context and insight into the applicability to the contemporary life of the dialectical and unified “round outside and square inside” behavior mode of contemporary Chinese people.

Key words: personality, Interpersonal Relatedness, round outside and square inside, latent profile analysis