ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报

• •    

消除威胁或无能狂怒?自恋对暴力犯攻击的影响机制

刘宇平1,杨波2   

  1. 1. 中国政法大学刑事司法学院
    2. 中国政法大学社会学院
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-10 修回日期:2020-10-03 出版日期:2020-11-06 发布日期:2020-11-06
  • 通讯作者: 杨波
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目

Eliminate threat or vent rage?The relationship between narcissism and aggression in violent offenders

  • Received:2020-06-10 Revised:2020-10-03 Online:2020-11-06 Published:2020-11-06
  • Contact: Bo 无Yang

摘要: 通过2个研究探索了自恋与暴力犯攻击行为的关系及机制。研究1通过问卷法(N=498)发现,自恋与攻击存在正相关,特质愤怒在自恋与预谋性和冲动性攻击间的中介作用成立,心理特权的中介作用只对预谋性攻击成立。研究2对90名暴力犯进行了行为学实验,结果表明威胁感和负性情绪在自恋与攻击间起中介作用,挑衅调节了上述中介作用。显性自恋者只在挑衅条件下表现出更强的攻击性,隐性自恋者则在挑衅和无挑衅条件下均有较强的攻击性。研究厘清了不同亚型下自恋与攻击的关系,突出了隐性自恋的“黑暗性”,并为罪犯矫治管理及犯罪预防提供了参考。

关键词: 自恋, 威胁感, 负性情绪, 攻击, 暴力犯

Abstract: Narcissism is a component of “the dark triad”,and it is also considered to be closely related to maladaptive even antisocial behaviors. Aggressive behavior is a typical anti-social behavior, and serious aggression will constitute violent crime. Narcissism is often divided into grandiose and vulnerable narcissism by researchers, meanwhile, there are also many subtypes of aggression, such as premeditated and impulsive aggression. Previous studies have shown that narcissists are more aggressive, especially facing provocation. On the one hand, narcissists will feel threatened when they are challenged. In order to maintain their ego and eliminate the threat, they may have aggressive behavior, which is called the theory of threatened egotism; on the other hand, once narcissists are challenged, because of their inflated but fragile ego, they will also show strong negative emotions, leading to behaviors out of control and even attack others, which is so-called narcissistic rage. But most studies are in the background of Western culture,and the participants are mainly college students. Most of the judicial field studies follow the way of questionnaires,and almost no experimental study are conducted to confirm the relation of narcissism and aggressive, and also the mechanism how they operate. Otherwise, previous studies made no distinctions of subtypes of narcissism and aggression, especially the subtype of vulnerable narcissism. Due to the above facts, in order to make up the disadvantages of previous studies, this study explore the relationship between narcissism and aggressive with a questionnaire in experiment 1, and the manipulating function of provocation with a competitive response time in experiment 2. In study1,we conducted a questionnaire, with Narcissism personality Inventory-13, Hypersensitivity Narcissistic Scale, The Trait Anger Scale, Entitlement Scale and Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scales in 498 violence offenders to establish a structural equation model, and used Bootstrap to examine the significance of effects to explore the relationship between narcissism and aggression and its mechanisms. In study 2,we recruited 90 violent offenders for scenario-based experiment. Participants were randomly divided into provocation group (n=46) and no provocation group (n=44).First, participants in both groups completed the questionnaire for narcissism. After that, they finished the first stage to manipulate provocation. Participants were told to compete with another participant (actually a fake participant) in racing the speed of reactions. In provocation group, participants lost the game and got the negative feedback from their rivals; in no provocation group, participants won the game and got the positive feedback from their rivals. Then they completed questionnaire for manipulation testing, and measured negative affect and perceived threat for the mediating variables. Finally, they finished the second stage in which they could send their rivals noises, which can be seen as the aggressive indicator. The results of experiment 1 showed that narcissism can predict aggression, and the trait anger and entitlement play multiple mediating roles. The effect of the mediating path grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→ trait anger→ premeditated aggression is significant (β=0.15, 95%CI[0.065,0.232]; β=0.24, 95%CI[0.151,0.335]),the effect of the mediating path grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→ trait anger→ impulsive aggression is significant(β=0.18, 95%CI[0.077,0.302];β=0.30,[0.195,0.400]). The effect of the mediating path grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→ entitlement→ premeditated aggression is significant (β=0.03,95%CI[0.006,0.062]; β=0.04,95%CI[0.006,0.075]), but the effect of the mediating path grandiose/vulnerable narcissism→ entitlement→ impulsive aggression is not significant(β=0.02,95%CI[-0.010,0.048]; β=0.02,95%CI[-0.013,0.052]). Compared with grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism is a stronger indicator of premeditated and impulsive aggression (Δβ=0.26, 95%CI [0.004, 0.503]; Δβ=0.37, 95%CI [0.104, 0.637]). The results of experiment 2 showed that under provocation, there is a significant correlation between grandiose narcissism and aggression (β=0.50, 95%CI [0.230, 0.772]). While perceived threat (β=0.09, 95%CI [0.002, 0.233]) and negative affect (β=0.11, 95%CI [0.222, 0.253]) also play a mediating role respectively. Grandiose narcissism cannot predict aggression behaviors if not provoked (β=0.03, 95%CI [-0.250, 0.303]), but the mediating role of perceived threat was still significant (β=0.08, 95%CI [0.002, 0.186]). For vulnerable narcissism, the influence on aggression (β=0.31, 95%CI [0.083, 0.508]) and the mediating role of perceived threat (β=0.11, 95%CI [0.028, 0.222]) and negative affect (β=0.13, 95%CI [0.014, 0.281]) are all significant whether provoked or not. Taken together, from the two experiments, we got the following draw the following conclusions: (1) The association between narcissism and aggression was still also effective in violent offenders in Chinese culture. (2) “Threatened egotism” and “Narcissistic rage” could explain the relationship between narcissism and aggression. Specifically, “threatened egotism” could predict premeditated aggression rather than impulsive aggression, “narcissistic rage” could predict for both subtypes of aggression. (3)Vulnerable narcissism is more non-adaptive, having a larger effect size on aggression and a wider applicability compared with grandiose narcissism. Researchers should pay more attention to the effects of vulnerable narcissism on maladaptive behaviors such as aggression, and distinguish the subtypes of narcissism and aggression. Furthermore, above results gave an enlightenment for the prevention of crime and the management and correction of criminals by judicial practice departments.

Key words: narcissism, threatened egotism, negative affect, aggressive, violent offender