ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


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  1. 北京大学
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-27 修回日期:2020-09-24 出版日期:2020-11-04 发布日期:2020-11-04
  • 通讯作者: 葛枭语

The multidimensional psychological structure of filial piety (xiao): Differences in orientations and changes in ancient and modern times

  1. Peking University
  • Received:2020-06-27 Revised:2020-09-24 Online:2020-11-04 Published:2020-11-04

摘要: 孝的内在结构具有多面性,但以往孝的量表存在信效度不高、掺入研究者主观意图、遗漏重要因素等弊端。研究通过经典文本改编和被试自由生成而编制条目,通过因素分析与效标分析等方法考察孝的结构(总样本量=1725),发现孝包含尊敬安乐父母、服从父母、和颜对待父母、守身不辱父母、陪伴父母、扬名以显父母、思慕父母、不干涉父母、劝谏父母,九因素结构具有良好的信效度。不同因素与效标变量(家庭自我概念、家庭弹性、父母教养方式、亲子边界不当、自立人格、服从倾向)具有不同的关联模式。这些发现反映出儒学论孝的敬慕之别、敬顺之变。此外讨论了不同因素的古今变迁。

关键词: 孝, 儒家文化心理学, 孝道, 孝行, 本土心理学

Abstract: Filial piety (xiao) refers to the proper way to treat parents, which is an important concept for Chinese culture. Since the New Culture Movement of China, some people criticize filial piety while others still advocate it. The possible reason why this disagreement arose may be that filial piety is composed of both good and dark sides. Psychological researchers have conducted some empirical studies to explore the factor structure of filial piety. However, past researches on the scale of filial piety have some limitations, such as unsatisfactory reliability and validity, confounding of subjective intent of researchers, and omissions of important factors of filial piety. I predicted that there exist more factors inside filial piety, and different factors are correlated with different criterion variables. Here, I tested an operational conceptualization of filial piety. Specifically, in the pilot study, items were generated in two ways. First, 50 items were adapted from four Chinese philosophical classics (i.e. the Analects of Confucius, the works of Mencius, the Classic of Filial Piety, and the Book of Rites). Second, 56 participants were recruited to list 5–10 characteristics of filial piety, and a total of 337 individually generated descriptors that I collected were then grouped into 48 categories by a psychology student who was blind to the hypothesis to simplify redundancies. In Study 1, I used exploratory factor analyses to construct a measure of filial piety (N = 633). In Study 2, I used confirmatory factor analyses and tested the correlations of each dimension of filial piety and criterion variables (i.e. family self-concept, family resilience, parent bonding styles, inadequate parent-child boundaries, self-supporting personality, and compliance) to validated the structure (N = 396 and 206). In Study 3, I asked the participants to indicate to which extent each item of the scale of filial piety agrees with their ideal filial piety in their minds (N = 221) and asked the participants who had children older than 10 years old to indicated to which extent each item agrees with their ideal expectation of how their children treat them (N = 213). The results showed that filial piety is composed of nine factors: respecting and installing parents, obeying parents, being kind and pleasant to parents, adhering to principles without letting parents feel humiliated, accompanying parents, making a name and letting parents feel honored, yearning for parents, not interfering with parents, and dissuading parents. The nine-factor structure has good reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, criterion-related validity, and content validity. Different factors have different patterns of the correlations with criterion variables. After controlling covariates, all dimensions of filial piety were positively correlated with family self-concept and family resilience. Parents’ care was positively correlated with respecting and installing parents, being kind and pleasant to parents, accompanying parents, and yearning for parents. Parents’ indifference was negatively correlated with them. Parents’ autonomy was negatively correlated with obeying parents. Lack of parent-child boundaries and the use of psychological control were positively correlated with obeying parents. Lack of parent-child boundaries was negatively correlated with respecting and installing parents, and was positively correlated with yearning for parents. Self-supporting personality was positively correlated with respecting and installing parents and dissuading parents. Interpersonal self-supporting personality was negatively correlated with yearning for parents. Compliance was positively correlated with obeying parents and yearning for parents, and was negatively correlated with dissuading parents. The findings helped to understand the internal structure of filial piety, and differentiate the good side of filial piety from the dark side.

Key words: Xiao, Confucianism cultural psychology, filial piety, filial behavior, indigenous psychology