ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报

• •    

物体颜色对情景记忆的影响

周文洁1,邓丽群1,丁锦红 2   

  1. 1. 首都师范大学心理学院
    2. 首都师范大学教育科学心理系
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-24 修回日期:2020-10-19 出版日期:2020-10-27 发布日期:2020-10-27
  • 通讯作者: 丁锦红

Neural mechanism underlying the effects of object color on episodic memory

  • Received:2020-06-24 Revised:2020-10-19 Online:2020-10-27 Published:2020-10-27
  • Contact: Jinhong Ding

摘要: 本研究采用ERP技术考察视觉输入的颜色和记忆中的颜色知识一致与否对情景记忆编码和提取的影响。结果显示,在对物体图片进行编码时颜色不一致图片诱发更大N400,而提取阶段则对颜色一致图片回想更快(潜伏期更短)(实验1);物体名称能够更快激活典型颜色知识,对颜色一致名称有更多细节回想(LPC更正)(实验2)。实验结果表明,颜色在知觉和语义水平上均对项目编码产生影响;同时,颜色信息对物体的知觉表征影响更大,它对物体图片提取中的熟悉性和回想均产生影响;而只影响物体名称提取的熟悉性。此外,颜色影响物体的语义表征,支持激活-扩散模型理论。

关键词: 颜色诊断性, 情景记忆, ERPs, 熟悉性, 回想

Abstract: As an important feature attribute of the object, color is processed and bound together with other surface information of the object (such as shape and texture) in the early processing stage of the visual system, jointly affecting the internal visual representation of the object. Color Diagnosticity is the degree to which a Color relates to or symbolizes a particular object. High-color diagnostic objects are often accompanied by visual or semantic knowledge of their typical colors in long-term memory. It is hypothesized that color knowledge can be activated and participate in mental representation in different forms and affect coding and retrieval; at the perceptual level, the familiarity of retrieval is affected, and the recollection is much more easily influenced when retrieve names of objects. In present study, event-related potential (ERP) and study-test paradigm were applied to investigate the effects of color consistency (visual color input and object color knowledge) on episodic memory coding and retrieval by using pictures and names of objects with high-color diagnosis as stimulus. Twenty-seven college students participated in experiment 1. In study phase, the participants were asked to judge whether the color of the object image was consistent with its actual color (such as purple banana or red apple); In test phase, participants were required to recognize the images that had appeared in the earlier study phase. Twenty-five college students participated in the experiment 2. During study phase, the participants were required to judge whether the color of object’s name was consistent with the actual color of the object, and then performed a recognition test for these object names. During the experiment, the participants responded by pressing mouse button, and their reaction time and EEG were recorded respectively. The results in Experiment 1 showed that in encoding phase, the color-inconsistent object images were identified more inaccurately and more slowly and triggered a larger N400 than the color-consistent images, while in retrieval phase the color-consistent images were recalled more quickly and accurately, and triggered larger FN400 (frontal negativity) than the color-inconsistent images. However, the opposite effects were observed in experiment 2. Color-inconsistent object names were identified more accurately and faster, and elicited same ERP wave as the color-consistent names. During the recognition, the color took effect only at the period of late positive components (LPC). In conclusion, color has different impacts on encoding and retrieval of episodic at both perceptual and semantic levels. (1) Color has different effects on item coding at perceptually and semantically. Color consistency helps to identifying objects at perceptual level, but hinders object identification at semantic level. (2) Color congruence promotes familiarity and recollection in object retrieval (perceptual level), but only improves recollection of object name (conceptual). (3) The consistency effect in the process of object name recognition shows that color is closely related to object name, and also affects the semantic representation of objects, which further supports the activation diffusion model.

Key words: color diagnosticity, episodic memory, ERPs, familarity, recollection