Abstract：Studies on how long-term memory affect working memory has found that long-term memory can promote the current working memory process. But in these studies, only item memory was used as the long-term memory representation. Many evidences have shown that associative memory is also an important part of long-term memory, associative memory has different cognitive mechanism and refers to different brain area with item memory. Therefore, the current study focused on how associative memory affects working memory processing. Before the working memory task, participants memorized 16 pairs of dissimilar pictures as long-term memory representation, make sure these pairs have entered long-term memory. The working memory task is a change detection paradigm. Pictures in the memory array appear in pairs (association condition) or without pairs (independent condition). In Experiment 1, 6 items (3 pairs) as memory array were presented 500 ms or 1000 ms, after a time interval of 1000 ms, participants determine whether the probe item is the same as memory array. Experiment 2 was similar with Experiment 1, except memory array were presented only 500 ms, and added 2 items (1 pairs) and 4 terms (2 pairs) in set size condition. The results in Experiment 1 showed that working memory capacity and accuracy in association condition were significantly lower than independent condition (in both presentation time was 500ms and 1000ms). The results in Experiment 2 showed that the alpha power in the independent condition increase with the memory set size (2 items < 4 items < 6 items), while the alpha power in the association condition has hits an asymptote at 4 items (2 items < 4 items = 6 items). These two experiments results both showed that working memory capacity in the association condition was lower than independent condition. In conclusion, Long-term association representations inhibit the current working memory processing and decrease working memory capacity. Even if the consolidation time is sufficient, this inhibitory effect still exists. In working memory maintenance stage, the inhibitory effect come from the associative representation increase the working memory load. While the working memory load increasing might due to the attention distribution disorder.