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心理学报
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长时联结表征对工作记忆的抑制效应
张引1,梁腾飞1,叶超雄2,3,刘强1
1. 辽宁师范大学
2. 四川师范大学
3. 于韦斯屈莱大学
The inhibitory effect of long-term associative representation on working memory
Yin YinZhang1, 1,Chao-Xiong 2,3,Qiang LiuQiang
 
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摘要 本研究通过两个实验探讨了长时记忆联结表征如何影响当下工作记忆任务的加工。长时记忆联结表征采用无语义联系、无视觉相似性的Emoji图片对,提前一天让被试完成联结表征的建立。正式工作记忆任务采用独立探测变化觉察范式。实验一控制呈现时间(500ms/1000ms)与呈现方式(联结/独立),发现两种呈现时间均显示出联结条件的正确率与记忆容量显著低于独立条件,说明长时记忆联结表征抑制了当前工作记忆的加工。实验二设置了记忆项目数(2/4/6项)与呈现方式(联结/独立),采用alpha震荡作为脑电指标,考察长时联结表征在工作记忆维持阶段的作用。结果发现在维持阶段,独立条件的alpha震荡随着记忆项目数量的增加而增大(2项 < 4项 < 6项),而联结条件在4项已经到达顶点(2项 < 4项 = 6项)。实验二进一步说明长时联结表征在维持阶段降低了当前工作记忆容量。本研究的两个实验结果表明,长时记忆联结表征对当前的工作记忆任务有一定的抑制作用,这种抑制作用产生的机制可能来自于联结表征干扰了维持阶段的注意分配。
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张引 梁腾飞 叶超雄 刘强
关键词 长时记忆工作记忆联结记忆alpha震荡    
Abstract:Studies on how long-term memory affect working memory has found that long-term memory can promote the current working memory process. But in these studies, only item memory was used as the long-term memory representation. Many evidences have shown that associative memory is also an important part of long-term memory, associative memory has different cognitive mechanism and refers to different brain area with item memory. Therefore, the current study focused on how associative memory affects working memory processing. Before the working memory task, participants memorized 16 pairs of dissimilar pictures as long-term memory representation, make sure these pairs have entered long-term memory. The working memory task is a change detection paradigm. Pictures in the memory array appear in pairs (association condition) or without pairs (independent condition). In Experiment 1, 6 items (3 pairs) as memory array were presented 500 ms or 1000 ms, after a time interval of 1000 ms, participants determine whether the probe item is the same as memory array. Experiment 2 was similar with Experiment 1, except memory array were presented only 500 ms, and added 2 items (1 pairs) and 4 terms (2 pairs) in set size condition. The results in Experiment 1 showed that working memory capacity and accuracy in association condition were significantly lower than independent condition (in both presentation time was 500ms and 1000ms). The results in Experiment 2 showed that the alpha power in the independent condition increase with the memory set size (2 items < 4 items < 6 items), while the alpha power in the association condition has hits an asymptote at 4 items (2 items < 4 items = 6 items). These two experiments results both showed that working memory capacity in the association condition was lower than independent condition. In conclusion, Long-term association representations inhibit the current working memory processing and decrease working memory capacity. Even if the consolidation time is sufficient, this inhibitory effect still exists. In working memory maintenance stage, the inhibitory effect come from the associative representation increase the working memory load. While the working memory load increasing might due to the attention distribution disorder.
Key wordslong-term memory    working memory    associative memory    alpha power
收稿日期: 2019-07-10      出版日期: 2019-10-24
中图分类号:     
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目
通讯作者: 刘强   
引用本文:   
张引 梁腾飞 叶超雄 刘强. 长时联结表征对工作记忆的抑制效应. 心理学报, .
Yin YinZhang Chao-Xiong Qiang LiuQiang. (0). The inhibitory effect of long-term associative representation on working memory. Acta Psychologica Sinica, (), 0-0.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y0/V/I/0
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