ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (12): 1363-1374.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01363

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

寻求者的注视方向对建议者建议提出的影响

段锦云1(), 施蓓2, 王啸天2   

  1. 1 华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院, 上海 200062
    2 苏州大学教育学院心理学系, 苏州 215123
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-25 出版日期:2019-12-25 发布日期:2019-10-21
  • 通讯作者: 段锦云 E-mail:mgjyduan@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金项目(71372180);中央高校基本科研业务费项目资助(2019ECNU-HWFW020)

The influence of advice-seeker’s gaze direction on advisor’s advice-giving

DUAN Jinyun1(), SHI Bei2, WANG Xiaotian2   

  1. 1 The School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2 Department of Psychology, School of Education, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
  • Received:2019-02-25 Online:2019-12-25 Published:2019-10-21
  • Contact: DUAN Jinyun E-mail:mgjyduan@hotmail.com

摘要:

基于信号理论, 研究采用3个依次递进的实验, 分别以大学生群体和在职员工为被试, 探讨了建议寻求者的注视方向对建议者建议提出意愿的影响。结果发现:(1)当建议寻求者的注视方向为正视时, 能够促进建议者提出建议的意愿, 建议者感知到的角色期待在其中起到了中介作用。(2)当建议者的拒绝敏感性高时, 寻求者的注视方向对建议提出意愿有显著影响; 当建议者的拒绝敏感性低时, 这种影响减弱或消失; 此外, 拒绝敏感性也调节了角色期待感知的中介效应。

关键词: 注视方向, 建议提出, 角色期待感知, 拒绝敏感性, 信号理论

Abstract:

Advice, given or taken, is vital in decision-making processes and social interactions. An individual can either exert one’s influence on others with advice, or use others’ advice to enable effective decision-making. Given the importance of behaviors related to advice, it has become critical for scholars to investigate their antecedents. However, previous studies have focused largely on advice taking rather than advice giving, which is equally vital.
To fill this gap, the current study, inspired by eye effects, seeks to explore the relationship between advice-seekers’ gaze direction and advisors’ willingness to give advice, as well as the mechanism underlying this relationship. Drawing from Signaling Theory, we examined the effect of advice-seekers’ gaze direction on advisors’ advice giving, as well as the process linking them. We focused on the mediating effect of perceived role expectation and on the moderating effect of rejection sensitivity.
Three experiments with different decision making scenarios were conducted to test the hypotheses. The advice-seekers’ gaze direction (direct vs. averted) was manipulated using same images of faces (3 models, 2 males and 1 female) in three experiments. Experiment 1 employed an undergraduate’ career decision-making scenario to examine the direct effect of advice-seekers’ gaze direction on advisors’ willingness of giving advice, as well as the mediating effect of perceived role expectation. A total of 102 university students were recruited for this experiment (39 males; mean age 23.76 ± 4.39 years), and were randomly divided into two groups (direct vs. averted). The experiment 2 adopted a 2 (gaze direction: direct vs. averted) × 2 (rejection sensitivity: high vs. low) between-subject design to examine the moderating effect of rejection sensitivity with an undergraduate’ decision-making scenario in daily study life. A total of 318 undergraduates were recruited (155 males; mean age 21.74 ± 1.49 years). Using the tendency to expect rejection scale (TERS), we deployed 86 participants (35 males) who scored in the top 27% in the high rejection sensitivity group and 86 participants (36 males) who scored in the bottom 27% in the low rejection sensitivity group. The experiment 3 employed a job-related decision making scenario in an organization to examine the full model (a moderated mediation model). A total of 198 full-time employees were recruited (88 males; mean age 31.20 ± 5.06 years).
The results of the three experiments showed that: (1) advice-seeker's gaze direction directly influenced the advisors’ willingness to give advice. When the advice-seeker's gaze direction was direct rather than averted, advisors were more willing to give advice; (2) perceived role expectation mediated the relationship between advice-seeker's gaze direction and advisors’ willingness to give advice; (3) advisors’ rejection sensitivity moderated the relationship between advice-seeker's gaze direction and advisors’ willingness to give advice, as well as the indirect relationship of advice seeker's gaze direction to advisors’ willingness to give advice through perceived role expectation. When the advisor's rejection sensitivity was high, seeker's direct gaze direction had a stronger effect on the advisors’ willingness to give advice, as well as on the indirect effect mentioned above. These findings contribute to our understandings of how to help advisors to give advice, and add to the research on eye effects as well.

Key words: gaze direction, advice-giving, perceived role expectation, rejection sensitivity, signaling theory

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