ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (10): 1091-1101.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01091

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

任务性质、家族大小和词类一致性对义符语法信息激活的影响

章玉祉1,张积家2()   

  1. 1 广东技术师范大学教育科学与技术学院, 广州 510665
    2 中国人民大学心理学系、教育部民族教育发展中心民族心理与教育重点研究基地, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-22 出版日期:2019-10-25 发布日期:2019-08-19
  • 通讯作者: 张积家 E-mail:Zhangjj1955@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 2018年度广东省哲学社会科学“十三五”规划学科共建项目(GD18XXL01);2018年度广东省教育科学“十三五”规划项目(2018GXJK100);国家民委民族研究重点项目“少数民族学生双语学习认知规律研究”(2017-GMA-004)

Effects of task type, family size, and grammatical consistency on the activation of grammatical information of semantic radicals

ZHANG Yuzhi1,ZHANG Jijia2()   

  1. 1 School of Science and Technology Education, Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, Guangzhou 510665, China
    2 Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2018-11-22 Online:2019-10-25 Published:2019-08-19
  • Contact: Jijia ZHANG E-mail:Zhangjj1955@163.com
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:

采用义符启动范式, 考察任务性质、家族大小和词类一致性对义符语法信息激活的影响。实验1通过词汇判断任务和词性判断任务的比较, 发现义符的语法信息激活具有任务特定性:只有在直接针对词类的词性判断任务中, 义符的语法信息才比较容易显现。实验1的结果为实验2的任务选择奠定了基础。实验2考察在词性判断任务中, 义符的家族大小和词类一致性对义符语法信息激活的影响, 发现家族大小和词类一致性都是影响义符语法信息激活的重要变量, 具体表现为大家族义符和高词类一致性义符在语法信息激活上具有促进效应。

关键词: 义符启动, 语法激活, 任务性质, 家族大小, 词类一致性

Abstract:

In the study of phonetic characters, whether the lexical grammatical information can be independently activated through speech comprehension or production has been a controversial topic. In recent years, increasing evidence has shown that grammar exists independently from semantics and phonetics.

Chinese characters are the only ideograms in the world. Chinese do not emphasize the grammatical categories of words, like phonetic characters, because Chinese words can represent a variety of word classes without changing the pronunciation and orthography. The complicated grammatical features of Chinese words make them difficult to be explored, but they still arouse researchers’ interest. Researchers have examined the grammatical activation of Chinese from the perspectives of sentence context, idioms, phrases, and Chinese words. Previous studies have also examined the grammatical features of Chinese words at or beyond the level of words. Accordingly, the present research extended the previous studies through the sub-lexical pathway.

Semantic radicals are the ideographic components and concentrated embodiment of Chinese characters. Relevant statistics and studies have shown that semantic radicals also represent grammar. On the basis of these studies, the present work used the semantic radical priming paradigm to investigate the grammatical activation and related influencing factors of Chinese words from the sub-lexical processing level.

Experiment 1 includes two small experiments, which examined whether the activation of the semantic radical’s grammatical information under the radical priming paradigm was specific to the task. Experiments 1a and 1b adopted a 2 (semantic radical priming/control priming) × 2 (G+ Chinese characters/G- Chinese characters) two-factor within-subject design. Experiment 1a used lexical decision as the reaction task, whereas Experiment 1b replaced it with grammatical classification. The comparison of results indicate that under the grammatical classification task, the grammatical information of semantic radicals was easier to activate. The discovery also set the foundation for the selection of the reaction tasks for Experiment 2.

Experiment 2 further investigated the influence of family size and grammatical consistency on the activation of the semantic radical’s grammatical information. Experiment 2a adopted a 2 (large family size/small family size) × 2 (G+ Chinese characters/G- Chinese characters) two-factor within-subject design to examine the influence of family size on the syntax activation of semantic radicals. The results of this experiment discovered the advantages of a big family. Experiment 2b replaced the family size factor with grammatical consistency, and the results also revealed the advantages of high grammatical consistency.

The overall results show that grammatical information can be activated at the sub-lexical level of Chinese words and the semantic radical marks the grammatical information. However, the activation of the semantic radical’s grammatical information is specific to the task. When the task is directly targeted to the grammar of the characters, the grammatical information can be easily activated. Family size and grammatical consistency are important factors that affect the activation of the semantic radical’s grammatical information. The results further manifest the promotion effect of a large family size and high grammatical consistency.

Key words: semantic radical priming, grammatical information activation, task nature, family size, grammatical consistency

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