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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (6): 606-621    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00606
     研究报告 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
身份信息与位置信息的加工进程及语境预测性的影响
徐迩嘉,隋雪()
儿童青少年健康人格评定与培养协同创新中心, 大连 116029
Effects of predictability on the time course of identity information and location information in Chinese word recognition
Erjia XU,Xue SUI()
Collaborative Innovation Center for Healthy Personality Assessment and Training of Children and Adolescents, Dalian 116029, China
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摘要 

采用行为实验和眼动实验, 探讨汉字身份信息和位置信息在词汇单独呈现和在语境中呈现的加工进程。实验1发现, 当启动时间为80 ms时, 换位启动效应与原词、尾字替换启动效应差异显著; 当启动时间为150 ms时, 换位启动效应与首字替换、尾字替换启动效应均差异显著; 当启动时间为300 ms时, 换位启动与原词、首字替换启动效应差异显著。实验2发现, 与低预测性条件相比, 高预测性条件下, 阅读时间更短, 注视次数更少; 在整句眼动指标上, 高预测性条件下, 原词条件与首字替换条件差异显著, 换位条件和替换条件差异不显著, 而低预测性条件下, 换位条件与原词条件和尾字替换条件差异显著。实验3采用边界范式, 发现预视时间为0 ms时, 换位条件更接近原词条件, 与替换条件差异显著。而预视时间为50和100 ms时, 换位条件与替换条件没有显著差异。研究结果表明, 在词汇单独呈现时, 位置信息的作用在早期阶段较大而后逐渐降低, 身份信息的作用逐渐增强。在句子阅读中, 位置信息的作用在副中央凹加工的早期阶段较小而后逐渐增大。语境预测性在加工的早期, 对位置 信息作用大, 在加工的晚期, 对身份信息作用大。研究结果支持SOLAR 模型和贝叶斯读者模型, 不支持SERIOL模型。

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徐迩嘉
隋雪
关键词 语境预测性位置信息身份信息加工进程    
Abstract

In the process of word recognition, the encoding of letter identity and letter location information plays a vital role. Many English studies found that the letter location information is more flexible than letter identity information. And context predictability has a different effect on letter location and identity information. Chinese word consists of meaningful morpheme, so the encoding of Chinese character identity and location information may have different features from English letter. In present study, we discussed the effect and the time course of predictability on the encoding of Chinese character identity and location information.

In order to explore the morpheme processing, the present study recruited 20 students as participants in experiment 1, and instructed them to do the lexical decision task. We used 5 types of word (original word, transposed non-word, initial substituted non-word, final substituted non-word and unmeaning symbol) as prime words when the prime time is 80 ms, 150 ms and 300 ms. We collected reaction time as the index. We found that the effect caused by transposed non-word is significant from that caused by original word under 80 ms and 300 ms prime condition, but it is opposite under 150 ms condition.

To study the morpheme processing in sentence, 50 participants took part in experiment 2, and was instructed to read high predictability and low predictability sentences. Each sentence included a different target word of 4 conditions which is original word(OR), transposed non-word (TN), first substituted (FS) non-word and end substituted (ES) non-word. The participation’s eye movement was recorded by EyeLink1000 during reading process. The results showed that the TN condition is not significant with FS and ES condition under high-predictability, but it is opposite under low-predictability.

To explore the time course of encoding of Chinese character location and identity information, we used the same materials as experiment 2 and manipulated parafoveal target word delay time for 0ms, 50 ms and 100 ms. We found that TN condition and OR condition are quite similar when the previewing is 0 ms, and the TN condition is analogy with FS and ES condition when the previewing is 50 ms and 100 ms.

On the whole, the data of the present study suggested that the encoding of Chinese character identity information and location information are separated. When Chinese words presented alone, the effect of location information is gradually reduced with the processing time increase. In sentence reading, location information is more flexible at the early stage in parafoveal processing. High predictability can promote the encoding of location information at early stage, and promote the encoding of identity information at later stage.

Key wordscontext predictability    location information    identity information    time course of processing
收稿日期: 2017-05-01      出版日期: 2018-04-28
ZTFLH:  B842  
基金资助:国家留学基金委公派留学项目(201608210288);辽宁省自然科学基金项目(201602460);辽宁省教育厅一般科研项目(L201683659);辽宁省教育科学“十三五”规划年度课题(JG16CB341)
通讯作者: 隋雪     E-mail: suixue88@163.com
引用本文:   
徐迩嘉, 隋雪. 身份信息与位置信息的加工进程及语境预测性的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(6): 606-621.
Erjia XU, Xue SUI. Effects of predictability on the time course of identity information and location information in Chinese word recognition. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(6): 606-621.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00606      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I6/606
启动时间 笔画 词频 字频
首字 尾字
80 ms 16.17 ± 4.46 0.26 ± 0.15 0.18 ± 0.30 0.23 ± 0.39
150 ms 15.50 ± 3.77 0.26 ± 0.22 0.20 ± 0.31 0.27 ± 0.48
300 ms 17.47 ± 4.35 0.21 ± 0.35 0.24 ± 0.54 0.25 ± 0.51
  实验材料的基本情况(M ± SD)
启动词条件 示例 列表
原词条件 经济-经济 List 1
换位非词条件 济经-经济 List 2
首字替换条件 吅济-经济 List 3
尾字替换条件 经吅-经济 List 4
无意义符号条件 吅吅-经济 List 5
  不同启动条件真假词判断任务的材料示例
启动类型 启动时间
80 ms 150 ms 300 ms
无意义符号 873 ± 132 801 ± 94 773 ± 125
换位非词 782 ± 122 634 ± 126 656 ± 119
尾字替换 737 ± 112 694 ± 73 664 ± 90
首字替换 803 ± 126 721 ± 85 758 ± 92
原词 741 ± 80 616 ± 83 569 ± 67
  三种启动时间和5种启动类型的反应时(M ± SD)
  不同条件下的启动效应注:*p < 0.01
可预测性 词汇类型 句子举例
高预测性
词(市场)
原词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的市场并从中获利。
换位非词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的场市并从中获利。
首字替换词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的吅场并从中获利。
尾字替换词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的市吅并从中获利。
低预测性
词(经济)
原词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的经济并从中获利。
换位非词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的济经并从中获利。
首字替换词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的吅济并从中获利。
尾字替换词填充 这批产品的降价是为了扰乱
中国的经吅并从中获利。
  句子阅读任务的材料举例
可预测性 词汇类型 句子举例
高预测性
词(经济)
原词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
经济状况和提高生产力。
换位非词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
济经状况和提高生产力。
首字替换词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
吅济状况和提高生产力。
尾字替换词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
经吅状况和提高生产力。
低预测性
词(市场)
原词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
市场状况和提高生产力。
换位非词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
场市状况和提高生产力。
首字替换词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
吅场状况和提高生产力。
尾字替换词填充 出台这些政策是为了复苏国家的
市吅状况和提高生产力。
  句子阅读任务的材料举例
实验条件 首次注视持续时间(ms) 首次注视次数(次) 凝视时间(ms) 总注视时间(ms) 总注视次数(次)
HP-OR 292 ± 110 4.35 ± 3.14 570 ± 289 1362 ± 902 5.16 ± 4.28
HP-TN 299 ± 125 4.30 ± 3.05 574 ± 293 1338 ± 1120 5.37 ± 3.59
HP-FS 309 ± 124 4.30 ± 3.15 587 ± 227 1411 ± 933 5.40 ± 4.16
HP-ES 305 ± 116 4.26 ± 3.05 603 ± 350 1505 ± 1238 5.12 ± 3.51
LP-OR 292 ± 118 4.23 ± 3.26 572 ± 212 1362 ± 1103 5.29 ± 4.29
LP-TN 307 ± 121 4.27 ± 3.18 574 ± 299 1433 ± 1012 5.46 ± 3.98
LP-FS 309 ± 132 4.16 ± 2.94 586 ± 265 1399 ± 940 5.64 ± 4.67
LP-ES 305 ± 114 4.32 ± 3.29 629 ± 247 1413 ± 1043 5.25 ± 3.57
  每种实验条件下各兴趣区内眼动指标的平均值和标准差(M ± SD)
实验条件 从目标词向前回视(次) 向目标词后的回视(次) 整句阅读时间(ms) 整句阅读次数(次)
HP-OR 0.16 ± 0.37 0.20 ± 0.40 5612 ± 2186 12.84 ± 5.88
HP-TN 0.22 ± 0.42 0.25 ± 0.44 5848 ± 2352 13.59 ± 5.08
HP-FS 0.20 ± 0.40 0.25 ± 0.43 6007 ± 2407 13.73 ± 6.15
HP-ES 0.20 ± 0.40 0.23 ± 0.42 5848 ± 2018 13.17 ± 4.63
LP-OR 0.19 ± 0.39 0.24 ± 0.43 5753 ± 2259 13.22 ± 5.69
LP-TN 0.22 ± 0.42 0.26 ± 0.44 6132 ± 2244 13.94 ± 5.43
LP-FS 0.23 ± 0.42 0.26 ± 0.44 6090 ± 2529 13.54 ± 5.05
LP-ES 0.23 ± 0.42 0.27 ± 0.44 6302 ± 3055 14.49 ± 7.45
  每种实验条件下各与目标词相关眼动指标的平均值和标准差(M ± SD)
目标延迟条件 眼睛越过边界前后
0 ms 苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手吅和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界之前)
苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手机和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界
0 ms之后)
50 ms 苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手吅和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界之前)
苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手机和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界
50 ms之后)
100 ms 苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手吅和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界之前)
苹果公司推出了最新款的
智能手机和平板电脑。
(眼睛越过边界
100 ms之后)
  实验2实验材料举例(边界在“手”之前)
实验条件 0 ms 50 ms 100 ms
HP-OR 235 ± 13 241 ± 32 181 ± 12
HP-TN 229 ± 21 222 ± 23 174 ± 18
HP-FS 239 ± 20 254 ± 17 184 ± 17
HP-ES 238 ± 11 233 ± 16 190 ± 21
LP-OR 228 ± 10 227 ± 34 288 ± 19
LP-TN 238 ± 25 245 ± 21 288 ± 21
LP-FS 246 ± 13 221 ± 27 293 ± 32
LP-ES 247 ± 31 238 ± 25 291 ± 11
  每种实验条件下首次注视的持续时间(ms)的平均值和标准差(M ± SD)
实验条件 0 ms 50 ms 100 ms
HP-OR 3.29 ± 0.72 3.34 ± 0.61 2.97 ± 0.67
HP-TN 3.39 ± 0.83 3.60 ± 0.43 3.06 ± 0.99
HP-FS 3.49 ± 0.92 3.43 ± 0.64 3.21 ± 0.72
HP-ES 3.37 ± 0.45 3.64 ± 0.83 3.09 ± 0.68
LP-OR 3.53 ± 1.03 3.85 ± 0.52 4.21 ± 0.55
LP-TN 3.69 ± 0.99 3.77 ± 0.81 4.24 ± 0.64
LP-FS 3.78 ± 0.80 3.79 ± 0.89 4.43 ± 0.53
LP-ES 3.75 ± 0.82 3.89 ± 0.71 4.26 ± 0.65
  0 每种实验条件下首次注视的次数的平均值和标准差(M ± SD)
实验条件 0 ms 50 ms 100 ms
HP-OR 1121 ± 95 1254 ± 117 1080 ± 78
HP-TN 1274 ± 112 1306 ± 130 1151 ± 84
HP-FS 1316 ± 116 1398 ± 122 1201 ± 96
HP-ES 1314 ± 118 1310 ± 109 1172 ± 90
LP-OR 1383 ± 111 1532 ± 140 1224 ± 95
LP-TN 1431 ± 119 1465 ± 131 1222 ± 99
LP-FS 1487 ± 140 1509 ± 141 1528 ± 113
LP-ES 1451 ± 123 1495 ± 158 1404 ± 108
  1 每种实验条件下凝视时间(ms)的平均值和标准差(M ± SD)
实验条件 0 ms 50 ms 100 ms
HP-OR 4.43 ± 1.76 4.97 ± 1.75 3.65 ± 1.0
HP-TN 4.90 ± 1.11 5.27 ± 1.60 3.76 ± 1.7
HP-FS 5.07 ± 1.27 5.42 ± 1.21 3.87 ± 1.4
HP-ES 4.94 ± 1.88 5.25 ± 1.97 3.87 ± 1.8
LP-OR 5.04 ± 1.73 5.24 ± 1.35 4.55 ± 1.5
LP-TN 5.22 ± 1.82 5.75 ± 1.44 4.72 ± 3.4
LP-FS 5.24 ± 1.33 6.09 ± 1.47 6.05 ± 1.7
LP-ES 5.12 ± 1.56 5.88 ± 1.62 5.23 ± 1.6
  2 每种实验条件下总注视次数(次)的平均值和标准差(M ± SD)
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[1] 张学民,姚林,鲁学明.

位置和轨迹信息在短暂消失目标复原过程中的作用

[J]. 心理学报, 2008, 40(01): 1-7.
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