Please wait a minute...
心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (6): 592-605    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00592
     研究报告 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
知觉负载对注视知觉适应后效的影响
赵亚军1,张智君2(),刘志方3,刘炜4,严璘璘5,唐溢6
1 西南民族大学社会学与心理学学院, 成都 610041
2 浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028
3 杭州师范大学心理学系, 杭州 310036
4 云南民族大学教育学院, 昆明 650504
5 浙江理工大学心理学系, 杭州310018
6 重庆市委党校, 重庆 400041
The influence of perceptual load on gaze perceptual adaptation aftereffect
Yajun ZHAO1,Zhijun ZHANG2(),Zhifang LIU3,Wei LIU4,Linlin YAN5,Yi TANG6
1 School of Sociology and Psychology, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu 610041, China
2 Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China
3 Department of Psychology, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, China
4 School of Education, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650504, China
5 Department of Psychology, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China
6 Party School of the Chongqing municipal Party committee, Chongqing 400041, China
全文: PDF(1343 KB)   HTML 评审附件 (1 KB) 
输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)       背景资料
文章导读  
摘要 

结合知觉负载任务和注视适应范式, 考察了知觉负载(高、低知觉负载)对不同注视线索(偏离注视与直视)适应后效的影响。结果发现:(1)偏离注视在低负载条件存在显著的适应后效, 而在高负载条件仅存在微弱的适应后效, 并且前者显著大于后者; (2)直视在低负载和高负载条件都出现了显著的适应后效, 并且二者不存在显著差异; (3)注意资源对偏离注视知觉的调节作用大于对直视知觉的作用。这说明, 偏离注视知觉受到注意资源紧张程度的调节, 而直视知觉不受注意资源的调节, 注意资源对直视与偏离注视的调节作用存在差异, 推测二者可能存在不同的加工机制。

服务
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章
赵亚军
张智君
刘志方
刘炜
严璘璘
唐溢
关键词 直视偏离注视注视知觉注视知觉适应后效知觉负载    
Abstract

During social communication, eyes gaze indicates the focus of people's attention. There are two types of gaze cue: direct gaze (straight) and averted gaze (left or right), which have different social functions. Previous researchers assume that gaze perception involves two different processing stages. The first stage refers to earlier visual feature analysis of eyes such as luminance contrast and geometry of white sclera and iris. The second stage involves the perceptual integration of eyes’ features and the extraction of gaze direction. However, this assumption ignores the differences in processing mechanism between direct gaze and averted gaze. Other researchers hypothesize that perception of direct gaze is mediated by a fast-track pathway via subcortical face processing route. Direct gaze perception has characteristics of automatic process, such as capturing attention and being processed unconsciously. Its automaticity shows that direct gaze has a processing advantage over averted gaze. We inferred that direct gaze perception was independent of attentional resources, while averted gaze perception required more attentional resources. The present study aimed at investigating how attentional resources affect perception of averted and direct gaze.

We combined Lavie’s perceptual load task and a short-term gaze adaptation paradigm to investigate how attentional resources influence the gaze adaptation aftereffect of direct gaze and averted gaze. Participants attended to a letter string superimposed on gaze adaptor (200 ms), and identified the target letter (X or N) embedded in the letter string of either 6 identical letters (low load) or 6 different letters (high load). Subsequently, a gaze probe was presented for 200 ms. Participants had to make judgements concerning the direction of probe (i.e. leftward, straight, or rightward). Sixteen na?ve participants (8 females) were tested in Experiment 1, which measured the modulation of averted gaze adaptation effect by perceptual loads. And twenty-two na?ve observers (11 females) participated in Experiment 2, which explored the effects of perceptual loads on direct gaze adaptation effect.

The results of Experiment 1 revealed that a significant aftereffect of averted gaze directed toward the adapted side in the low load condition. However, such gaze adaptation effect was eliminated under high load condition. Crucially, the gaze adaptation effect in low load condition was significantly greater than that in high load condition. It was suggested that the extraction of averted gaze direction (leftward or rightward) was modulated by attentional resources (perceptual load). When a demanding competing task has exhausted all available processing capacity, the direction of averted gaze could not be extracted. While the load was low, “spill over” capacity was available to the processing of task-irrelevant gaze direction. Results of Experiment 2 showed a significant direct gaze adaptation effect both under low and high load conditions, which were not significantly different from each other. These results indicated that the perceptual adaptation of direct gaze was not influenced by attentional resources. Although limited processing capacity was fully consumed by a high load task, direct gaze could be processed as well. Compared with averted gaze, processing of direct gaze required fewer attentional resources. Therefore, requirements to attentional resources were different between processing of averted and direct gaze.

In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that the processing of averted gaze direction is not mandatory automatic and it requires some degree of attentional resources. But gaze perception does not require attentional resources for direct gaze. Our findings indicated that processing of averted and direct gaze may be mediated by different underlying mechanisms, although distinct gaze directions are coded by a similar multichannel system with separate channels coding left, direct, and right gaze. Our results replicate and extend recent findings of different processing mechanisms between averted and direct gaze. Moreover, it may promote integration between different gaze perception models, such as multichannel system and fast-track modulator model.

Key wordsdirect gaze    averted gaze    gaze perception    gaze perceptual adaptation aftereffect    perceptual load
收稿日期: 2015-10-19      出版日期: 2018-04-28
ZTFLH:  B842  
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(31371039);国家自然科学基金项目(31500879);教育部人文社会科学研究项目(15YJC190022);西南民族大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目资助(2018SQN04)
通讯作者: 张智君     E-mail: zjzhang@zju.edu.cn
引用本文:   
赵亚军, 张智君, 刘志方, 刘炜, 严璘璘, 唐溢. 知觉负载对注视知觉适应后效的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(6): 592-605.
Yajun ZHAO, Zhijun ZHANG, Zhifang LIU, Wei LIU, Linlin YAN, Yi TANG. The influence of perceptual load on gaze perceptual adaptation aftereffect. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(6): 592-605.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00592      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I6/592
  不同注视方向的探测刺激和适应刺激
  单次试验流程图
实验条件与反应 注视方向
L10 L5 D0 R5 R10
适应前基线
向左 0.93 (0.08) 0.58 (0.18) 0.10 (0.08) 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02)
直视 0.06 (0.07) 0.40 (0.18) 0.78 (0.14) 0.31 (0.17) 0.04 (0.04)
向右 0.01 (0.01) 0.02 (0.04) 0.12 (0.11) 0.68 (0.17) 0.95 (0.05)
低负载-适应L25
向左 0.85 (0.12) 0.42 (0.18) 0.08 (0.09) 0.03 (0.04) 0.00 (0.00)
直视 0.12 (0.10) 0.53 (0.18) 0.73 (0.19) 0.22 (0.13) 0.02 (0.03)
向右 0.03 (0.05) 0.05 (0.07) 0.19 (0.16) 0.75 (0.13) 0.98 (0.03)
低负载-适应R25
向左 0.95 (0.09) 0.68 (0.20) 0.18 (0.11) 0.08 (0.08) 0.02 (0.03)
直视 0.04 (0.08) 0.30 (0.20) 0.75 (0.18) 0.50 (0.20) 0.07 (0.06)
向右 0.01 (0.02) 0.02 (0.04) 0.07 (0.12) 0.42 (0.18) 0.91 (0.07)
高负载-适应L25
向左 0.91 (0.16) 0.51 (0.17) 0.08 (0.06) 0.02 (0.03) 0.00 (0.01)
直视 0.07 (0.13) 0.44 (0.17) 0.73 (0.18) 0.21 (0.12) 0.02 (0.02)
向右 0.02 (0.06) 0.05 (0.10) 0.19 (0.17) 0.77 (0.11) 0.98 (0.02)
高负载-适应R25
向左 0.94 (0.08) 0.64 (0.23) 0.15 (0.16) 0.06 (0.06) 0.01 (0.02)
直视 0.05 (0.07) 0.32 (0.22) 0.73 (0.25) 0.36 (0.22) 0.05 (0.77)
向右 0.01 (0.02) 0.04 (0.08) 0.12 (0.14) 0.58 (0.20) 0.94 (0.76)
  实验1不同知觉负载和适应条件下做“向左”、“直视”与“向右”反应的平均比例
  实验1不同知觉负载任务中对探测注视方向做“直视反应”的平均比例
  实验1不同知觉负载条件下的注视适应效应量
实验条件与反应 注视方向
L10 L5 D0 R5 R10
适应前基线
向左 0.94 (0.11) 0.65 (0.18) 0.14 (0.10) 0.04 (0.06) 0.00 (0.01)
直视 0.06 (0.10) 0.33 (0.16) 0.75 (0.16) 0.39 (0.16) 0.06 (0.06)
向右 0.00 (0.01) 0.02 (0.04) 0.11 (0.12) 0.57 (0.18) 0.94 (0.07)
低负载-适应D0
向左 0.98 (0.04) 0.78 (0.14) 0.19 (0.10) 0.05 (0.05) 0.00 (0.01)
直视 0.02 (0.04) 0.21 (0.14) 0.70 (0.18) 0.28 (0.18) 0.05 (0.08)
向右 0.00 (0.01) 0.01 (0.02) 0.11 (0.12) 0.67 (0.20) 0.95 (0.08)
高负载-适应D0
向左 0.97 (0.06) 0.78 (0.18) 0.13 (0.06) 0.04 (0.04) 0.00 (0.01)
直视 0.02 (0.04) 0.20 (0.16) 0.73 (0.18) 0.31 (0.23) 0.04 (0.05)
向右 0.01 (0.05) 0.02 (0.05) 0.14 (0.19) 0.65 (0.24) 0.96 (0.06)
  实验2不同知觉负载和适应条件下做“向左”、“直视”与“向右”反应的平均比例
  实验2不同知觉负载任务中对探测注视方向做“直视反应”的平均比例
  实验2不同知觉负载条件下的注视适应效应量
  偏离注视(L25、R25)与直视(D0)在注意资源对适应后效的调节量上的比较
[1] Al-Janabi S., & Finkbeiner M . ( 2014). Responding to the direction of the eyes: In search of the masked gaze-cueing effect. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 76, 148-161.
[2] Bayliss A. P., Bartlett J., Naughtin C. K., & Kritikos A . ( 2011). A direct link between gaze perception and social attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37(3), 634-644.
pmid: 21038995
[3] Burra N., Hervais-Adelman A., Kerzel D., Tamietto M., de Gelder B., & Pegna A. J . ( 2013). Amygdala activation for eye contact despite complete cortical blindness. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(25), 10483-10489.
pmid: 23785160
[4] Burton A. M., Bindemann M., Langton S. R. H., Schweinberger S. R., & Jenkins R . ( 2009). Gaze perception requires focused attention: Evidence from an interference task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35(1), 108-118.
pmid: 19170474
[5] Calder A. J., Jenkins R., Cassel A., & Clifford C. W. G . ( 2008). Visual representation of eye gaze is coded by a nonopponent multichannel system. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137(2), 244-261.
pmid: 18473657
[6] Cave K. R., & Chen Z . ( 2016). Identifying visual targets amongst interfering distractors: Sorting out the roles of perceptual load, dilution, and attentional zoom. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78(7), 1822-1838.
pmid: 27250363
[7] Chen A. R., Dong B., Fang Y., Yu C. Y., & Zhang M . ( 2014). The role of cue type in the subliminal gaze-cueing effect. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 46, 1281-1288.
[ 陈艾睿, 董波, 方颖, 于长宇, 张明 . ( 2014). 线索类型对阈下注视线索效应的影响. 心理学报, 46, 1281-1288.]
[8] Chen Y. C., & Yeh S. L . ( 2012). Look into my eyes and I will see you: Unconscious processing of human gaze. Consciousness and Cognition, 21(4), 1703-1710.
pmid: 23117220
[9] Doherty, M. J . ( 2006). The development of mentalistic gaze understanding. Infant and Child Development, 15, 179-186.
[10] Doherty M. J., McIntyre A. H., & Langton S. R. H . ( 2015). Developmentally distinct gaze processing systems: Luminance versus geometric cues. Cognition, 137, 72-80.
pmid: 25618009
[11] Duchaine B., Jenkins R., Germine L., & Calder A. J . ( 2009). Normal gaze discrimination and adaptation in seven prosopagnosics. Neuropsychologia, 47(10), 2029-2036.
pmid: 19467353
[12] Fang F., Murray S. O., & He S . ( 2007). Duration-dependent fMRI adaptation and distributed viewer-centered face representation in human visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 17(6), 1402-1411.
pmid: 16905593
[13] Frischen A., Bayliss A. P., & Tipper S. P . ( 2007). Gaze cueing of attention: Visual attention, social cognition, and individual differences. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 694-724.
pmid: 17592962
[14] Hu Z. H., Liu Q., Zhao G., & Li H . ( 2013). The measurement of detection superiority of direct gaze affected by stimuli component information. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 45, 1217-1227.
[ 胡中华, 刘强, 赵光, 李红 . ( 2013). 刺激特征信息影响直视探测优势测量. 心理学报, 45, 1217-1227.]
[15] Hu Z. H., Zhao G., Liu Q., & Li H . ( 2012). The detection superiority of perceived direct gaze in visual search task: Evidence from eye movements. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 44(4), 435-445.
[ 胡中华, 赵光, 刘强, 李红 . ( 2012). 视觉搜索任务中直视探测优势的眼动研究. 心理学报, 44(4), 435-445.]
[16] Insch P. M., Slessor G., Warrington J., & Phillips L. H . ( 2017). Gaze detection and gaze cuing in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Cognition, 116, 47-53.
pmid: 28365061
[17] Jenkins R., Beaver J. D., & Calder A. J . ( 2006). I thought you were looking at me: Direction-specific aftereffects in gaze perception. Psychological Science, 17, 506-513.
pmid: 16771801
[18] Jenkins R., Lavie N., & Driver J . ( 2005). Recognition memory for distractor faces depends on attentional load at exposure. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12, 314-320.
pmid: 16082812
[19] Johnson M. H., Senju A., & Tomalski P . ( 2015). The two-process theory of face processing: Modifications based on two decades of data from infants and adults. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 50, 169-179.
pmid: 25454353
[20] Kloth N., & Rhodes G . ( 2016). Gaze direction aftereffects are surprisingly long-lasting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42(9), 1311-1319.
pmid: 26962845
[21] Kloth N., Rhodes G., & Schweinberger S. R . ( 2015). Absence of sex-contingent gaze direction aftereffects suggests a limit to contingencies in face aftereffects. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1829.
pmid: 4664652
[22] Lavie, N. ( 2005). Distracted and confused?: Selective attention under load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(2), 75-82.
pmid: 15668100
[23] Lavie N., & de Fockert J. W . ( 2003). Contrasting effects of sensory limits and capacity limits in visual selective attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 65, 202-212.
pmid: 12713239
[24] Luo Y., Feng L. H., Ren M., Gu Q. Y., Zhao S. Y., & Zhang Y . ( 2017). The effect of perceptual load on processing and memorizing negative facial distractor. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 49(10), 1256-1266.
[ 罗禹, 丰丽红, 任敏, 顾秋瑀, 赵守盈, 张禹 . ( 2017). 知觉负载对负性分心面孔的知觉加工和记忆的影响. 心理学报, 49(10), 1256-1266.]
[25] Materna S., Dicke P. W., & Their P . ( 2008). Dissociable roles of the superior temporal sulcus and the intraparietal sulcus in joint attention: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(1), 108-119.
pmid: 18095789
[26] Murphy G., Groeger J. A., & Greene C. M . ( 2016). Twenty years of load theory—Where are we now, and where should we go next?. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(5), 1316-1340.
pmid: 26728138
[27] Neumann M. F., & Schweinberger S. R . ( 2008). N250r and N400 ERP correlates of immediate famous face repetition are independent of perceptual load. Brain Research, 1239, 181-190.
pmid: 18793621
[28] Nummenmaa L., & Hietanen J. K . ( 2009). How attentional systems process conflicting cues: The superiority of social over symbolic orienting revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 1738-1754.
pmid: 19968432
[29] Ricciardelli P., & Turatto M . ( 2011). Is attention necessary for perceiving gaze direction? It depends on how you look at it: Evidence from the locus-of-slack method. Visual Cognition, 19, 154-170.
[30] Rorden C., Guerrini C., Swainson R., Lazzeri M., & Baylis G. C . ( 2008). Event related potentials reveal that increasing perceptual load leads to increased responses for target stimuli and decreased responses for irrelevant stimuli. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2, 4.
pmid: 18958205
[31] Rothkirch M., Madipakkam A. R., Rehn E., & Sterzer P . ( 2015). Making eye contact without awareness. Cognition, 143, 108-114.
pmid: 26133642
[32] Sato W., Kochiyama T., Uono S., & Toichi M . ( 2016). Neural mechanisms underlying conscious and unconscious attentional shifts triggered by eye gaze. NeuroImage, 124, 118-126.
pmid: 26343316
[33] Sato W., Okada T., & Toichi M . ( 2007). Attentional shift by gaze is triggered without awareness. Experimental Brain Research, 183, 87-94.
pmid: 17624520
[34] Senju A., & Johnson M. H . ( 2009). The eye contact effect: Mechanisms and development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 127-134.
pmid: 19217822
[35] Shepherd, S. V . ( 2010). Following gaze: Gaze-following behavior as a window into social cognition. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 4, 5.
pmid: 2859805
[36] Spezio M. L., Huang P. Y., Castelli F., & Adolphs R . ( 2007). Amygdala damage impairs eye contact during conversations with real people. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(15), 3994-3997.
pmid: 17428974
[37] Stein T., Peelen M. V., & Sterzer P . ( 2012). Eye gaze adaptation under interocular suppression. Journal of Vision, 12, 1-17.
pmid: 22753441
[38] Stein T., Senju A., Peelen M. V., & Sterzer P . ( 2011). Eye contact facilitates awareness of faces during interocular suppression. Cognition, 119, 307-311.
pmid: 3796336
[39] Teufel C., Fletcher P. C., & Davis G . ( 2010). Seeing other minds: Attributed mental states influence perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(8), 376-382.
[40] Von Grünau M., & Anston C . ( 1995). The detection of gaze direction: A stare-in-the-crown effect. Perception, 24, 1297-1313.
pmid: 8643334
[41] Xu S., Zhang S., & Geng H. Y . ( 2011). Gaze-induced joint attention persists under high perceptual load and does not depend on awareness. Vision Research, 51(18), 2048-2056.
pmid: 21840332
[42] Yeshurun Y., & Marciano H . ( 2013). Degraded stimulus visibility and the effects of perceptual load on distractor interference. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 289.
pmid: 3665929
[43] Yokoyama T., Noguchi Y., & Kita S . ( 2013). Unconscious processing of direct gaze: Evidence from an ERP study. Neuropsychologia, 51(7), 1161-1168.
pmid: 23603242
[44] Yokoyama T., Sakai H., Noguchi Y., & Kita S . ( 2014). Perception of direct gaze does not require focus of attention. Scientific Reports, 4, 3858.
pmid: 24618808
[45] Zhang M. C., Wei P., & Zhang Q . ( 2015). The impact of supra- and sub-liminal facial expressions on the gaze-cueing effect. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 47(11), 1309-1317.
[ 张美晨, 魏萍, 张钦 . ( 2015). 阈上阈下不同面孔表情下的注视线索提示效应. 心理学报, 47(11), 1309-1317.]
[1] 胡金生, 李骋诗, 王琦, 李松泽, 李涛涛, 刘淑清. 孤独症青少年的情绪韵律注意偏向缺陷:低效率的知觉模式[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(6): 637-646.
[2] 张豹, 胡岑楼, 陈颜璋, 缪素媚, 黄赛.  工作记忆与知觉负载对工作记忆表征 引导注意的调节[J]. 心理学报, 2017, 49(8): 1009-1021.
[3] 罗禹, 丰丽红, 任敏, 顾秋瑀, 赵守盈, 张禹.  知觉负载对负性分心面孔的知觉加工和记忆的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2017, 49(10): 1256-1266.
[4] 刘英杰;郭春彦;魏萍. 知觉负载影响注意选择和冲突解决的系列效应[J]. 心理学报, 2014, 46(9): 1271-1280.
[5] 胡中华;刘强;赵光;李红. 刺激特征信息影响直视探测优势测量[J]. 心理学报, 2013, 45(11): 1217-1227.
[6] 魏萍;康冠兰. 注意捕获效应受知觉负载及目标与干扰项距离的共同影响[J]. 心理学报, 2012, 44(11): 1454-1462.
[7] 张庆,张杰栋,胡思源,刘嘉. 不受知觉负载调节的注意捕获效应:生态信息的作用[J]. 心理学报, 2011, 43(11): 1229-1238.
[8] 张智君,赵亚军,占琪涛. 注视方向的知觉对注视追随行为的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2011, 43(07): 726-738.
[9] 叶榕,余凤琼,蒋玉宝,汪凯. 注意瞬脱范式中的知觉负载对情绪面孔加工的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2011, 43(05): 483-493.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
版权所有 © 《心理学报》编辑部
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发  技术支持:support@magtech.com.cn