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数学困难儿童估算策略运用的中央执行负荷效应
杨伟星1,张堂正2,李红霞1,张佳佳2,司继伟1
1. 山东师范大学
2. 山东师范大学心理学院
The Effects of Central Executive Load on the Strategy Utilization of Computational Estimation in Children with Mathematics Learning Difficulties
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摘要 前人研究表明中央执行影响个体的算术策略运用,但罕见考察其对数学困难儿童估算策略运用的影响。本研究运用选择/无选法范式,通过操纵不同长度数字串的排序记忆任务作为不同水平中央执行负荷,考察其对数困儿童估算策略运用的限制性作用。74名六年级儿童(数困儿童36名)参加了本研究。结果发现:(1)数困组儿童在无、低、高三种负荷条件下的策略执行正确率均显著低于正常组,反应时上只在无负荷和低负荷条件下显著慢于正常组;(2)数困组儿童在三种负荷条件下的策略选择正确率和反应时上均显著差于正常组,且数困组的策略选择受负荷影响更大;(3)两组儿童的策略选择适应性都受到负荷的影响,负荷越高,两组儿童的策略选择适应性越差,且数困组儿童显著差于正常组。这表明中央执行负荷对数困儿童和正常发展儿童的策略运用会产生差异性影响。上述发现为深入理解中央执行功能作用于数困儿童的较差策略运用的潜在机制具有重要理论和实践意义。
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杨伟星
张堂正
李红霞
张佳佳
司继伟
关键词 策略运用中央执行负荷抑制控制数学困难估算    
Abstract:An important aspect of human cognition is that performance depends on the strategies that people use in a wide range of cognitive domains. In the field of arithmetic cognition, the performance of strategy utilization was influenced by many factors in which central executive functions (central executive functions, EFs) were involved and played critical roles. In previous studies, researchers tended to focus on the impact of central executive load on the use of arithmetic strategy in children or adults with typically development (TD) of mathematical ability while children with mathematics difficulties (MD) had been out of consideration. Thus, the present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the influence of central executive load upon the strategy utilization of children with MD during arithmetic processing which seemed to be meaningful both theoretically and practically. 74 sixth graders consisting of 36 MD and 38 TD were selected in accordance with previous studies strictly. All participants who were asked to finish a two-digit addition computational estimation with rounding-up or rounding-down strategy and a secondary task at the same time. We manipulated a secondary task as varying central executive load by requiring participants to memorize five (high central executive load) or three (low central executive load) digits presented randomly in sequence at the beginning of each trial and rank them with descending order or no digit (no central executive load). Five or three digits were presented randomly in sequence at the beginning of each trial and rank them with descending order. Results showed that: (1) In terms of the strategy executive, the accuracy of MD was significantly lower than that of TD under all the three central executive loaded conditions and the reaction time of MD was significantly longer than that of TD only under the no and low central executive loaded conditions. With the increasing of central executive load, the MD had distinct manifestation relative to that of TD on strategy executive; (2) In the case of strategy selection, the accuracy of MD was significantly lower than that of TD and the reaction time of MD was significantly longer than that of TD under three central executive loaded conditions. Compared with TD, the strategy selection of MD was more heavily influenced by the levels of central executive load. Likewise, the performance of MD was influenced by growing central executive load other than that of TD on strategy selection; (3) For the adaptivity of strategy choice, the higher the levels of central executive load was, the worse the adaptivity of strategy choice of participants became, and the adaptivity of strategy choice of MD was significantly worse than that of TD under all three central executive loaded conditions. These findings of current study have important theoretical and practical significance for the profound understanding of the potential mechanism of MD with worse strategy utilization. In conclusion, the strategy utilization of MD is worse than that of TD during arithmetic processing. Though strategy utilization of both the MD and TD is getting worse as a function of the levels of central executive load, MD are more heavily influenced by central executive load. The adaptivity of strategy choice of two groups is affected negatively by the strength of central executive load while the adaptivity of strategy choice of MD is worse than that of TD. What’s more, the present study is contributing to exploring how the central executive load influences the process of strategy utilization clearly. Combining with electrical technology as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging technology (fMRI), future research should further explore the changes of individuals’ electrical components or brain regions activated under different levels of central executive load.
Key wordsstrategy utilization    central executive load    inhibitory control    mathematics difficulties    computational estimation
收稿日期: 2017-04-13      出版日期: 2018-01-08
基金资助:国家自然科学基金面上项目;发展与教育心理学省级强化建设重点学科
通讯作者: 司继伟   
引用本文:   
杨伟星 张堂正 李红霞 张佳佳 司继伟. 数学困难儿童估算策略运用的中央执行负荷效应[J]. , .
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y/V/I/0
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