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证人证词和自主探索综合影响5岁儿童的因果推理
刘雁伶1,曾晓青2,左玲3,黄乐辉1,陈水平1,胡竹菁2
1. 江西科技师范大学教育学院
2. 江西师范大学心理学院
3. 江西省八一保育院
The influence of Testimony and Exploration on Preschool Children’s Causal Inference
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摘要 开展两个实验探讨证人证词和自主探索结果对5岁儿童因果推理的综合影响,并分析儿童是否对证人的自信度和自知水平敏感。实验1采用2(证人自信程度:自信、不自信)x2(儿童探索次数:无探索、九次探索水平)完全随机实验设计探究有无探索对儿童因果推理的影响;实验2采用单因素(证人自信程度:自信、不自信)完全随机实验设计探究更多的探索次数对儿童因果推理的影响。结果显示5岁儿童能综合证人证词和探索证据推断因果关系;与获得2次矛盾证据相比,更多儿童在获得4次矛盾证据后依据自主探索结果推断因果关系;但儿童对证人的自信度和自知水平不敏感。
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刘雁伶 曾晓青 左玲 黄乐辉 陈水平 胡竹菁
关键词 自主探索证人证词矛盾证据学前儿童因果推理    
Abstract:Statistical information, experimental results, and testimonies are material of children's scientific thinking. But until recently, the psychological mechanism of the interaction of the three kinds of information in children's scientific thinking has not been elucidated (Sobel & Kushnir, 2013). In this study, research paradigm from Bridgers et al(2016) is used in two experiments to explore the interaction of independent exploration and informant testimony on physical causal reasoning of 5-year-old children, children's perception of informant self-confidence and awareness also been analyzed. Experiment 1 adopt a 2x2 completely randomized experiment design, the independent variable is the informant’s self-confidence (two levels: self-confidence, not-confidence) and the number of children independent exploration (two levels: no exploration, nine explorations), the dependent variable is the frequency of children’s choice of candidate cause. Informant testimony(such as A is more likely to cause a effect than B ) given by a adult female in a laptop, and children explore with a music box to get evidence that contradict with testimony(B is more likely to cause a effect than A). 84 preschool children(50 boys and 34 girls, mean age 63.7 months) take part in experiment 1. The results show that there are more children choice cause contradict with testimony in the nine explorations level than in no exploration level , but this difference is not statistically significant; children do not sensitive to the informant self confidence and awareness. Experiment 1 found that the contradictory evidence did not significantly improve child’s choice of cause that contradict with testimony, which may be due to small example of contradictory evidence. Experiment 2 increase the absolute number of contradictory evidence to explore the interaction of independent exploration and informant testimony, a single factor completely random experimental design was adopted, the independent variable is informant’s confidence (two levels: self-confidence, not-confidence), the experimental procedure is the same as the nine explorations level in Experiment 1, but the number of independent exploration is increased to eighteen times. 54 preschool children(28 boys and 26 girls, mean age 63.9 months) take part in experiment 2. The results show that there are more children in the eighteen explorations level than in no exploration level(experiment 1) choice cause contradict with testimony, and the difference is statistically significant. Once again, children do not sensitive to the informant self confidence and awareness. The results show that 5-year-old children can integrate the results of independent exploration and the testimony of informant to inference causal relationship, the number of children who choice cause contradict with testimony increase with the number of contradiction evidence. Children do not sensitive to the informant self confidence may be due to the default bias, the follow-up Research should focus on the interaction of independent exploration, observe others experiment and informant testimony on preschool children's scientific thinking, and focus on how to improve children's consciousness of assess adult awareness and credibility.
Key wordsindependent exploration    informant testimony    conflict evidence    preschool children    causal inference
收稿日期: 2017-06-14      出版日期: 2018-01-08
基金资助:国家自然科学基金;江西省社会科学十三五规划(2016)课题“因果推理概率匹配现象的心理机制研究”
通讯作者: 胡竹菁   
引用本文:   
刘雁伶 曾晓青 左玲 黄乐辉 陈水平 胡竹菁. 证人证词和自主探索综合影响5岁儿童的因果推理[J]. 心理学报, .
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y0/V/I/0
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