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尚俊辰1,刘智慧2,陈文锋 3,4,傅小兰3
1. 辽宁师范大学
2. 辽宁师范大学心理学院
3. 中国科学院心理研究所
4. 中国人民大学心理学系
Influence of Aesthetics on Unconscious Processing of Western Paintings
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摘要 采用连续闪烁抑制范式(Continuous Flash Suppression,CFS),通过比较不同美感的图片的突破抑制时间,考察了美感对西方绘画无意识加工的影响。实验1使用黑白噪音图片,通过单因素被试内设计考察了高、中、低三种美感等级的彩色西方绘画的突破抑制时间。结果发现,美感高和美感中等的西方绘画比美感低的西方绘画能更快突破噪音图片的抑制进入意识。实验2考察在彩色噪音图片的抑制下,美感是否依然影响彩色西方绘画突破抑制的时间。结果发现,美感不影响西方绘画突破抑制时间,且突破抑制时间显著长于实验1。这些结果表明美感对西方绘画无意识加工的影响受到双眼竞争的眼间抑制过程的限制,只有在黑白噪音图抑制的情况下,美感会影响西方绘画进入意识的速度。与黑白噪音图片相比,彩色噪音图片可能对颜色信息的抑制更强,干扰了美感对西方绘画无意识加工的影响。
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关键词 美感双眼竞争连续闪烁抑制西方绘画无意识加工    
Abstract:People prefer beautiful visual artworks. Aesthetic experiences to beautiful and ugly images are different. Studies on neuroaesthetics also suggest different neural responses to beautiful stimuli compared to ugly stimuli. The first stage of aesthetic experience of a visual artwork is visual perception of the stimulus. The specialty of aesthetic processing in most research focuses on stimuli presented consciously. Little is known about whether aesthetic processing can occur unconsciously. Attractive faces break through continuous flash suppression more quickly than unattractive faces. Thus, it is possible that unconscious processing of beautiful paintings is different from less beautiful paintings. In two experiments, the present study adopted continuous flash suppression paradigm to investigate whether aesthetic ratings of Western paintings influenced the time for stimuli to break suppression. We also compared the suppression effect of achromatic (Experiment 1) and chromatic (Experiment 2) noise pictures. In Experiment 1, 20 participants (8 females, 12 males) took part in the experiment. The independent variable is aesthetic rating of Western paintings (high, average, and low). The achromatic suppression noises were presented to participants’ dominant eye and continued to flash at 10 Hz. A Western painting was presented to the nondominant eye, at either above or below the central cross, with contrast increasing from 0 to 100% within 1s and remaining constant until response. Participants were instructed to respond as accurately and quickly as possible when any part of the painting was detected, and report whether the target was presented above or below the cross. 18 participants (9 females, 9 males) took part Experiment 2. Experiment 2 was identical with Experiment 1 except chromatic suppression noises were presented to the dominant eye. In Experiment 1, results showed that paintings with low aesthetic ratings took significantly longer time to break into awareness, comparing to paintings with average and high aesthetic ratings. The reaction times were not significantly different between paintings with average and high aesthetic ratings. In Experiment 2, however, the time for breaking suppression was not significantly different between three categories of paintings. Moreover, the effect of suppression was different between different noises, such that reaction times were longer under suppression by chromatic noises (Experiment 2) than achromatic noises (Experiment 1). These results suggested different unconscious processing of Western paintings with different aesthetic ratings. Similarly with attractive faces, paintings with high and average aesthetic ratings were easier to be detected under suppression. Our findings provided evidence that aesthetic processing can occur unconsciously under suppression by achromatic noises. The present study also suggested that suppression effect of achromatic noises is different with chromatic noises. Chromatic noises may interfere with the color information of paintings and disrupt the aesthetic perception of paintings.
Key wordsaesthetic judgments    binocular rivalry    continuous flash suppression    Western paintings    unconscious processing
收稿日期: 2017-06-16      出版日期: 2018-01-08
通讯作者: 陈文锋    
尚俊辰 刘智慧 陈文锋 傅小兰. 美感对西方绘画无意识加工的影响[J]. , .
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