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心理学报
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根植于航空安全文化的内隐安全态度的预测效应
晏碧华;姬鸣;赵小军;屠金路;游旭群
(陕西师范大学心理学院暨陕西省行为与认知神经科学重点实验室, 西安 710062)
Predictive Effect of Implicit Safety Attitudes on Safety Performance in Aviation Safety Culture
YAN Bihua; JI Ming; ZHAO Xiaojun; TU Jinlu; YOU Xuqun
(School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi´an 710062, China)
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摘要 

采用飞行管理态度问卷FMAQ 2.0作为航空安全文化背景下外显安全态度的评价工具, 并设计了两个安全态度的内隐联想测试(IAT)对134名飞行员进行了调查, 同时运用专家评定法对其飞行绩效进行了评价, 结果发现:(1) 航空安全态度的IAT效应值较强, 飞行安全更多与积极评价和积极情感联系在一起, 对飞行风险与冒险是消极评价与回避。(2) 外显和内隐安全态度既相关又分离:评价性内隐安全态度和外显态度的驾驶舱工作态度、情感性内隐安全态度和驾驶舱工作态度与自动化驾驶态度显著正相关, 且总外显态度与内隐态度正相关显著, 同时模型数据显示二者是分离性结构。(3) 外显和内隐安全态度均能预测安全绩效, 其中外显态度对飞行作风、飞行技能和机组管理的预测率较高, 内隐态度在安全规章上预测率较高, 其共同预测模型拟合良好。结论:外显与内隐安全态度、安全绩效及其相互关系共同构成特定航空安全文化的完整模型。

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晏碧华
姬鸣
赵小军
屠金路
游旭群
关键词 航空安全文化内隐安全态度内隐联想测试安全绩效    
Abstract

The fundamental feature of safety culture is represented by safety attitudes. In terms of measuring safety cultures, many researchers have mainly focused on explicit safety attitudes and generally relied on specific survey instruments. It is questionable, however, whether self-report measures can capture all aspects of organizational safety culture. Instead of getting direct answers, it is necessary to introduce implicit measures and the implicit safety attitudes test into safety culture evaluation. The basic hypothesis of this study was that while various enterprises share different safety culture, the structure and intensity of implicit and explicit safety attitudes differ for employees. The present study was aimed at investigating the complete model of aviation safety culture and the importance of implicit safety attitudes by detecting the relationship between explicit and implicit safety attitudes as well as the prediction effect of implicit safety attitudes. The Flight Management Attitudes Questionnaire (FMAQ 2.0, international version) was adopted in this study which was based on the work characteristics of modern airlines pilots. With the purpose of evaluating explicit safety attitudes under the background of aviation safety culture, FMAQ 2.0 is comprised of three subscales, including basic organizational attitudes, cockpit work attitudes, and flight automation attitudes. Moreover, Evaluative Implicit Association Test and Affective Implicit Association Test were developed for aviatic implicit safety attitudes test. 134 pilots were involved in the investigation, 126 valid cases were obtained. Safety performance were obtained from airline company on four dimensions, including safety regulation, flight style, flight skill and organizational management was applied for validity criterion. The results showed that (1) IAT of aviation safety attitudes indicated a high effect value, aviation safety led to more positive evaluation and feelings while flight risk and adventure were more connected with negative evaluation and emotion. (2) Implicit and explicit safety attitudes were both relevant and relative separation. There was a positive relation between evaluative implicit safety attitudes and cockpit work attitudes. Affective implicit safety attitudes showed significant positive correlation with cockpit work attitudes and flight automation attitudes. And the model data showed that implicit and explicit safety attitudes were separation structure. (3) Both the flight management attitudes and implicit safety attitudes were able to predict safety performance. The former were doing better on predicting flight style, flight skill and organizational management, while the latter had higher prediction rate on safety regulation. The common prediction model fitted well. The study demonstrated a high intensity of aviation safety attitudes. IAT can be used as an effective evaluation tool for implicit safety attitudes. Explicit and implicit safety attitudes are both unified and separated structure. The explicit safety attitudes, implicit safety attitudes and safety performance together constitute a complete model of aviation safety culture. And in this model, the outer layer is aviation safety performance, the middle layer is explicit safety attitudes which can be measured directly, the inner layer is implicit safety attitudes which can be evaluated by indirect measurement methods.

Key wordsaviation safety culture    implicit safety attitudes    Implicit Association Test    safety performance
收稿日期: 2014-05-04      出版日期: 2015-01-26
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金青年项目(71301092)和教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金(14YJA190012)资助。

通讯作者: 游旭群, E-mail: youxuqun@snnu.edu.cn; 晏碧华, E-mail: yanbihua@snnu.edu.cn    
引用本文:   
晏碧华;姬鸣;赵小军;屠金路;游旭群. 根植于航空安全文化的内隐安全态度的预测效应[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00119.
YAN Bihua; JI Ming; ZHAO Xiaojun; TU Jinlu; YOU Xuqun. Predictive Effect of Implicit Safety Attitudes on Safety Performance in Aviation Safety Culture. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(1): 119-128.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00119      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I1/119
[1]

游旭群,晏碧华,李瑛,顾祥华,杨仕云,杨仕云,屠金路

. 飞行管理态度对航线飞行驾驶行为规范性的影响[J]. , 2008, 40(04): 466-473.
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