ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (01): 9-17.

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  1. 北京师范大学心理学院,认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室,北京100875
  • 收稿日期:2006-04-27 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2007-01-30 发布日期:2007-01-30
  • 通讯作者: 陈宝国

Age of Acquisition Effects in Reading Chinese: Evidence in Favor of the Semantic Hypothesis

Chen-Baoguo,You Wenping,Zhou Huixia   

  1. School of Psychology, State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2006-04-27 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2007-01-30 Published:2007-01-30
  • Contact: Chen Baoguo

摘要: 通过三个实验考察了词汇加工中的习得年龄效应。实验一对比了汉字命名和图片命名中词汇习得的年龄效应,发现图片命名中存在着较大的词汇习得的年龄效应,汉字命名中没有出现这种效应。实验二和实验三分别采用语义范畴判断任务和图片语义分类任务,两个实验均发现了词汇习得的年龄效应。实验结果说明,词汇习得的年龄效应至少部分来源于语义加工的层次,结果支持了语义假设的观点

关键词: 词汇习得的年龄, 汉语, 语义假设, 语音完整性假设

Abstract: Age of acquisition (AoA) is an important variable that has recently drawn considerable attention as a determinant of lexical processing. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the origin of the AoA effects. One of the hypotheses is the phonological completeness hypothesis, which assumes that AoA effects arise at the level of phonological representation (Brown & Watson, 1987; Gerhand & Barry, 1998). However, it had failed to explain the AoA effects in a phonological segment experiment (Monaghan & Ellis, 2002) and some experiments which phonological output was not necessary (Brysbaert et al., 2000). Another important hypothesis is semantic hypothesis, which assumes that at least parts of the AoA effect originate from the semantic system (Van Loon-Vervoon, 1989; Brysbaert et al., 2000). According to this hypothesis, the order of acquisition has a lasting effect on the time needed to activate the meanings of words. However, some studies have failed to support the claims of the semantic hypothesis (Morrison, Ellis, & Quinlan, 1992). In the present study, three experiments were conducted to examine the locus of the age of acquisition effects in the processing of Chinese and especially tested the semantic hypothesis of AoA effects.
In Experiment 1, participants performed word naming and picture naming tasks. The stimuli comprised 36 single characters and 36 line drawings obtained from the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) pictures. The 36 characters included 18 early-acquired and 18 late-acquired items. The 36 characters were also the corresponding Chinese names of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) .We aimed to compare the AoA effects between picture naming tasks and character naming tasks. To reduce the influence of the phonological output on the AoA effects in the picture naming task of Experiment 1, semantic category judgment task was used in Experiment 2, which required the subjects to judge whether the character belongs to the semantic category of “action”. There were 40 early-acquired and 40 late-acquired characters. In Experiment 3, picture classification task was used,which required the subjects to decide whether the object in the picture belongs to living things or non-living things. There were 28 pictures in each category, with 14 early-acquired and 14 late-acquired picture names. In all three experiments, the age-of-acquisition of words was rated by 30 subjects as Gilhooly and Logie (1980) did.
Reaction times for correct responses and error rates were analyzed by subject and by item variance. In Experiment 1, there was an interaction between AoA and task, with substantial AoA effect in picture naming task (119ms), but no AoA effect in character naming task. In Experiment 2, the semantic category judgment task showed significant AoA effects (17ms). In Experiment 3, the significant AoA effects were also found in the task of picture classification of non-living things (20ms).
The results of the present study suggested that the AoA effects could be partially produced within the semantic processing system, rather than only within the speech output system

Key words: Age of acquisition, Chinese, Semantic hypothesis, Phonological completeness hypothesis