ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (06): 683-694.

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汉字认知过程中整字对部件的影响

罗艳琳;王鹏;李秀军;石雅琪;陈墨;王培培;胡斯秀;罗跃嘉   

  1. (1首都医科都医科大学, 神经生物学系, 北京 100069)
    (2北京师范大学, 认知与学习国家重点实验室, 北京 100875)
  • 收稿日期:2009-03-31 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2010-06-30 发布日期:2010-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 罗艳琳

The Effect of Character’s Whole Recognition on the Processing of Components in the Processes of Chinese Characters

LUO Yan-Lin;WANG Peng;LI Xiu-Jun;SHI Ya-Qi;CHEN Mo;WANG Pei-Pei;HU Shi-Xiu;LUO Yue-Jia   

  1. (1 Department of Neurobiology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China)
    (2 Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China)
  • Received:2009-03-31 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2010-06-30 Published:2010-06-30
  • Contact: LUO Yan-Lin

摘要: 英文研究中, “字优效应”是单词促进字母加工的一个重要依据。但中文研究中还存在一些争议。本研究通过两个实验考查了汉字的部件认知中, 汉字整体对局部(部件)的影响。实验刺激材料分为三种, 即左右结构或上下结构的真字、假字与部件字。目标部件为既能够放置于三种字符的左侧, 又能放置于右侧(上部或下部)的汉字部件。实验一采用Reicher-Wheeler实验任务, 先呈现刺激材料350ms, 掩蔽后再呈现需要判断的目标部件, 被试对目标部件进行按键反应。实验二中采用部件判断实验任务, 先呈现需要判断的目标部件, 再呈现刺激材料, 被试对刺激材料中是否包含目标部件进行按键反应。记录反应时与正确率。27位健康女性大学生参与本实验。结果显示: (1)不论是Reicher-Wheeler实验任务还是部件判断实验任务, 均显示部件字的部件认知判断速度最快。真字与假字相比, 无“字优效应”。真字与部件字相比, 存在着“字劣效应”。这些结果表明, 汉字整字对汉字部件认知加工起到抑制作用; (2)两个实验任务均表现出汉字结构方式效应, 即对左右结构的汉字的部件认知比上下结构的汉字更快; (3)部件的空间位置对部件识别存在影响。实验一中对下部件分辨最困难, 分辨时间最长; 实验二中发现对左部件的反应最快。字符结构方式效应与部件空间位置效应既存在于真字中, 也存在于假字中。

关键词: 汉字认知, 字优效应, 汉字结构方式效应, 部件空间位置效应

Abstract: The word superiority effect is an important evidence that whole word processing facilitates letter processing in English word recognition. However, such effect still remains controversial in Chinese character recognition. In this study, two experiments were carried out to explore the effect of Chinese whole character recognition over component processing. There was manipulation of three types of stimuli: real characters, pseudo characters and radical characters, only right-left or up-down structures of which are chosen. The target radicals could be placed either at the left or the right (either the up or the down) side of the three types of character stimuli. Reicher-Wheeler task was used in experiment 1. The stimuli were presented for 350ms, followed by a mask for 200ms, then two radicals for 1700ms. The participants were asked to choose the target radical in the two radicals. Radical judgment task was performed in experiment 2. The target radical was presented for 350ms, followed by three types of stimuli. Participants were asked to judge whether the stimuli character contained the target radical or not. The reaction time and the error rate were recorded by the computer. Twenty-seven healthy female college students participated in this study. The results were as the following: 1) In both experiments, the reaction time of radical judgment in the radical character condition was shorter than the real characters and the pseudo characters. Word superiority effect was found in radical characters. Compared with the pseudo characters, no word superiority effect was found in real characters. These findings indicated that Chinese character’s whole recognition blocked radical processing. 2) The reaction time of left-right structure characters was shorter than that of the up-down ones. That is to say, the structure effect was significant in Chinese characters. 3) The spatial position of radicals in a stimulus had a significant influence on radical recognition. The position effect was found across three kinds of characters. The reaction time of the left radicals was the shortest and the reaction time of the down radicals was the longest among four positions in the three types of characters.

Key words: Chinese character processing, word superiority effect, structure effect, radical spatial position