ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (06): 651-662.

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  1. (湖北省人的发展与心理健康重点实验室(华中师范大学); 华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 4300079)
  • 收稿日期:2009-01-09 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2010-06-30 发布日期:2010-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 刘思耘

Processing Lexical Tones and Emotional Tones in Precategorical Acoustic Storage

QIN Wei-Wei;LIU Si-Yun;YANG Li;ZHOU Zong-Kui   

  1. (Hubei Human Development and Mental Health Key Laboratory (Huazhong Normal Normal University; School of Psychology at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China)
  • Received:2009-01-09 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2010-06-30 Published:2010-06-30
  • Contact: LIU Si-Yun

摘要: 采用系列位置回忆任务, 探讨作为声调语言的汉语普通话中声调及情绪信息是否具有近因及后缀效应, 从而揭示同为超音段信息的声调和情绪韵律在前分类声音存储器(Precategorical Acoustic Storage, PAS)中是否具有单独的表征, 及该表征可能受到哪些因素的影响。实验一和二分别考察了声调是否具有近因和后缀效应, 实验三和四分别考察了情绪信息是否具有近因和后缀效应。实验结果发现两者均在PAS存储器中有单独的表征, 但这种表征会受到一些因素的影响, 且受影响的方式不一样。研究结果表明作为超音段信息的声调和情绪信息在表征上的不稳定性和脆弱性, 及在短时记忆加工过程中的特殊性。

关键词: 前分类声音存储器, 超音段信息, 声调, 情绪韵律

Abstract: Precategorical acoustic storage (PAS) is described as a limited capacity buffer store in which acoustic traces are overwritten by successive auditory events. The goal of this study is to extend the function of PAS by investigating whether the recency effect and the suffix effect could also be found when Mandarin lexical tones and emotional tones are recalled in a serial order. Four experiments were conducted. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to recall lexical tones in a serial order. In these experiments, the recency effect and the suffix effect were found. In Experiments 3 and 4, emotional tones were required to be recalled in a serial order. Both effects were also found. The results of our current study suggest that lexical tones and emotional tones are represented independently in PAS, but their representation status is affected by the attributes of suffix. The results also implied that representations of Mandarin pitch patterns were not as stable as segmental fragments, revealing their special status in short-term memory processing.
A serial of lexical tones served as experimental stimuli in Experiments 1 and 2. In Experiment 1, 20 undergraduates were required to give immediate serial recall of the lexical tones presented auditorily via speech. In Experiment 2, a suffix was presented at the end of each serial of lexical tones. Another 20 undergraduates were asked to verbally report the serial as soon as the suffix disappeared. In that lexical tones have a close relationship with vowels, four types of suffixes were prepared at the end of each serial and were further compared with the results of Experiment 1. The results of the two experiments indicated that lexical tones, regardless of suffix type, showed a similar recency effect and suffix effect as vowels in serial recall performance. These findings imply a representation in PAS.
A serial of emotional tones served as experimental stimuli in Experiments 3 and 4, which aimed to discover whether emotional tones also show the recency effect and the suffix effect, thus represented in PAS as well. The suffix in Experiment 4 was either consistent or inconsistent with the final item’s emotional information. The results of Experiment 3 indicated that emotional tones reveal a recency effect in the serial recall task. The results of Experiment 4 were compared with those of Experiment 3, and it was found that emotional tones had the suffix effect only when the emotional information of the suffix was inconsistent with that of the final item. The relationship between the suffix and the final item may be a critical factor that causes the suffix effect.
Our results are consistent with the notion that PAS, as a sensory memory system, is a storage that can represent and process various aspects of speech information in a similar way. Further implications of our findings are also discussed in terms of specific attributes of lexical tones and emotional tones.

Key words: precategorical acoustic storage, suprasegmental information, lexical tones, emotional tone