ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (04): 496-506.

• • 上一篇    

我国运动员退役意识与心理状态的定量分析

王进   

  1. 浙江大学教育学院体育系,杭州310028
  • 收稿日期:2006-04-14 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2008-04-30 发布日期:2008-04-30
  • 通讯作者: 王进

A Quantitative Analysis on the Retirement Awareness and Psychological State of Chinese Athletes

WANG Jin   

  1. School of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China
  • Received:2006-04-14 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2008-04-30 Published:2008-04-30
  • Contact: Wang Jin

摘要: 基于运动员退役过程理论,对我国运动员的退役意识和生活心理状态进行定量分析,旨在探索运动员在退役过程中的意识与心理状态变化。通过对789名运动员(现役运动员540人,退役运动员249人)的退役意识和生活心理状态调查,结果发现运动员的退役意识主要反映在运动员角色和退役准备的认知方面,当运动员角色的认知下降时,退役准备的认知会上升;在生活心理状态的评估方面,有退役想法的运动员要比无退役想法的运动员差;现役运动员的心理状态与退役运动员的心理状态在表现形式上不一样,主要表现为现役运动员反映了较高的生活焦虑,而退役运动员反映了较高的孤独感;分析进一步发现,运动员在退役过程中普遍感到缺乏社会支持。基于以上这些发现,研究从社会心理学角度,讨论了我国运动员退役的意识与心理现状

关键词: 运动员退役, 退役意识, 运动员认同性, 心理状态

Abstract: Previous research on athlete retirement in China has often focused on non-psychological factors and treated athlete retirement as an incident. Based on the theoretical process of athlete retirement, this study is designed to explore retirement awareness, for which athletes are divided into different groups based on the duration of their involvement with athletics, and also to examine the psychological state of athletes and retired athletes.
Our survey on retirement awareness covered 789 athletes (540 athletes and 249 retired athletes); it included questions pertaining to athlete identity and preparation for retirement and a questionnaire on their psychological states, including their satisfaction with life, the appraisal of personal relationships, self-evaluation, social support, the anxiety of life, and loneliness. Quantitative analyses were conducted on these variables using a MANOVA and a correlation analysis.
The results of the MANOVA showed that retired athletes reported a lower level of life anxiety and more loneliness than non-retired athletes; athletes who had been retired for one-year reported less social support as compared with other retired athletes. Further, athletes who had intentions to retire reported a lower level of athlete identity, a higher level of preparation for retirement, and higher negative psychological state than those who did not intend to retire. The correlation analyses showed a significant negative relationship between age and athlete identity (r = –0.14, p < 0.01), a significant positive relationship between age and preparation for retirement (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), a significant positive relationship between the training duration and preparation for retirement (r = 0.16, p < 0.01), and a significant negative relationship between the training duration and social support (r = –0.18, p < 0.01).
The findings of this study provide quantitative psychological data pertaining to athlete retirement in China and suggest that retirement counseling and social support are useful to athletes when they intend to retire

Key words: athlete retirement, retirement awareness, athlete identity, psychological state

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