ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (04): 466-473.

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  1. 陕西师范大学心理学系,西安 710062
  • 收稿日期:2006-12-06 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2008-04-30 发布日期:2008-04-30
  • 通讯作者: 游旭群

The Effects of Flight Management Attitude on the Standardization of the Navigation Behavior of Airline Pilots

YOU Xu-Qun;YAN Bi-Hua;LI Ying;GU Xiang-Hua; YANG Shi-Yun;TU Jin-Lu   

  1. Department of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, 710062 Xi’an, China
  • Received:2006-12-06 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2008-04-30 Published:2008-04-30
  • Contact: You Xuqun

摘要: 在对航线飞行管理态度量表进行验证性因素分析的基础上,通过对飞行员航线飞行中所表现出的驾驶行为规范性水平的实时评估, 着重探讨了飞行管理态度与航线飞行员驾驶舱操作行为规范性水平之间的关系。结果表明: (1)由基本组织态度、驾驶舱工作态度和自动化驾驶态度所构成的航线飞行管理态度量表三因素结构模型具有良好的拟合效果和较高的信、效度,达到了心理计量学的标准。(2)基本组织态度中的组织信任度和工作满意度分别对驾驶舱工作态度和自动化驾驶态度产生显著影响,但并不直接影响飞行员的驾驶行为,而驾驶舱工作态度和自动化驾驶态度两个因素对航线飞行驾驶行为的规范性有显著影响。研究提示,基本组织态度通过驾驶舱工作态度和自动化驾驶态度间接影响驾驶行为的规范性。因此,驾驶舱工作态度和自动化驾驶态度构成了影响航线飞行员驾驶行为规范性的两个重要中介变量。研究为中国文化背景下的航空安全文化特征诊断和CRM训练奠定了一定的工作基础

关键词: 航空安全文化, 飞行管理态度, 驾驶行为规范性, 航线飞行员

Abstract: A Flight Management Attitude Questionnaire (FMAQ2.0, international version), developed by Helmreich and Merritt (1996), is a suitable measuring instrument for evaluating the modeling features of aviation safety culture. The three dimensions of the test are basic organizational attitude, cockpit work attitude, and flight automation attitude. The Line/LOS Error Checklist (Version 6.0), also designed and revised by Helmreich and his colleagues (1999), is a worksheet for the assessment of human factors skills in order to manage external threat events and cockpit crew errors. In this questionnaire, the navigation behavioral markers (NBM) of airline pilots are considered as the most important index for the standardization of navigation behavior. The objective of the present study was to (1) test the appropriateness of FMAQ2.0 in Chinese, and (2) explore the effect and mechanisms of the three variables in FMAQ2.0 on navigation behavior, and construct and test an explicative model of aviation safety culture in enabling the standardization of the navigation behavior of airline pilots.
Two scales measuring both the modeling features of aviation safety culture and the standardization of navigation behavior were administered to 426 male airline pilots. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the reliability and validity of FMAQ2.0 in study 1. Further, in study 2, a structural equation model (LISREL8.50) was adopted to analyze the data.
The results indicated the following: (1) Confirmatory factor analysis of the three-dimensional FMAQ2.0 was the best fit of data, and the reliability analyses and construct validity tests validated the fact that the three main dimensions of FMAQ2.0 met the individual psychometrical diagnostic standard. (2) Trust in the organization and job satisfaction, which were included under basic organizational attitude, predicted the flight automation and cockpit work attitudes, respectively, but did not predict navigation behavior directly. However, the path coefficients relating the flight automation and cockpit work attitudes to navigation behavior were greatly significant.
The results of this study supported the adaptability of FMAQ2.0 for Chinese airline pilots. In addition, the study provided partial support for the hypothesized model, in that the general organizational attitude did not directly predict the standardization of navigation behavior. Furthermore, the cockpit work and flight automation attitudes were found to be two important mediators of the relationship between the general organizational attitude and standardization of navigation behavior. The study aims to identify the mechanisms by which several factors related to aviation safety culture contribute to hazardous attitudes that influence the standardization of safe navigation behaviors among airline pilots. Further, it aims to provide a basis for the aviation industry to assess aviation safety culture and establish an appropriate CRM training system while considering the Chinese cultural background

Key words: aviation safety culture, flight management attitude, standardization of navigation behavior, airline pilots