ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (01): 135-145.

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具有创造成就的科学家关于创造的概念结构

张景焕;金盛华   

  1. 山东师范大学心理系,济南250014

    北京师范大学心理学院,北京100875

  • 收稿日期:2006-01-04 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2007-01-30 发布日期:2007-01-30
  • 通讯作者: 金盛华

The Conceptual Structure of Creativity of Scientists with Creative Achievements

Zhang-Jinghuan,Jin-Shenghua   

  1. Department of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China

    School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

  • Received:2006-01-04 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2007-01-30 Published:2007-01-30
  • Contact: Jin Shenghua

摘要: 运用Q分类及多尺度分析方法,研究具有创造成就的科学家关于创造成就的概念结构。被试是30名来自物理、化学、数学、地学和生命科学领域的具有创造成就的科学家。研究发现,具有创造成就的科学家关于创造成就的概念结构由“成就取向/内心体验取向”、“主动进取/踏实肯干”两个维度构成;取得科学创造成就的重要特征是“成就取向”和“主动进取”。作者进一步讨论了主动进取对于取得创造性成就的意义

关键词: 具有创造成就的科学家, 概念结构, Q分类, 多尺度分析

Abstract: It was in the 1950s’ when scientific psychological method was introduced into the field of scientific creativity and creative eminence. Many researchers since then have reported their results and provided the scientists with creative achievements (SCA) specific descriptions. A puzzling situation was that many characteristics of SCA presented were parallel or overlap. As a result, it was difficult to form a clear idea as to what is the most important characteristic trait for SCA, and also their descriptions were conflicting. From methodological point of view,all the previous researchers viewed the problem from an outsiders’ point of view. It is assumed that those who are SCAs would understand the concepts better. This study took the standpoint of “inner looker” to examine how SCAs regarded their own creative achievement and to identify the conceptual structure of creative achievement.
Method
2 pre-studies and a formal study were conducted. In the first pre-study, 34 SCAs were interviewed with a structured interview program; in the second pre-study, an important psychological characteristic inventory was developed, and the test-retest reliability information was computed (r=0.737, n=21, answered with Q-sort technique). In the formal study, 30 SCAs in five disciplines -- mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography and life science -- sorted the psychological characteristics in two contexts (creative achievement/general achievement) with Q-sort technique, and then multiple scaling was used to analyze the data.
Results
(1) The SCAs’ conceptual structure of creative achievement includes two dimensions: achievement pursuit/self-experience pursuit and initiative/down-to-earth and (2) The most important properties of creative achievement were “achievement pursuit” and “initiative”.
Conclusions
(1) Both creative achievement and general achievement had the same property of achievement pursuit, but the creative achievement saw initiative as the power to break through further; whereas the general achievement placed emphasis on knowledge as the basis; (2) To achieve a creative achievement, both general achievement base and initiative were needed. Initiative can generalize the former research results and cover a broader characteristic of SCA

Key words: scientists with creative achievements, conceptual structure, Q-sort technique, multiple scaling

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