ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2003, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (01): 112-119.

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社会判断中的样例激活效应

王沛,王新波   

  1. 西北师范大学教科院,兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2002-07-17 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2003-01-30 发布日期:2003-01-30
  • 通讯作者: 王沛

THE EFFECTS OF EXEMPLAR ACTIVATION IN SOCIAL JUDGMENT

Wang Pei,Wang Xinbo   

  1. The Academy of the Educational Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, China 730070
  • Received:2002-07-17 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2003-01-30 Published:2003-01-30
  • Contact: Wang Pei

摘要: 初步考察了社会判断过程中样例激活效应存在的条件、作用、强度和指向。被试为西北师范大学教育科学学院心理系2年级学生160人。实验结果表明:(1)样例激活效应在强启动和弱启动条件下都存在,而且表现为同化效应。(2)在强启动条件下,样例激活效应表现强烈。进一步讲,正、反样例对高、低效价的靶子都有同化效应,但正面样例对低效价靶子的效应更强;而反面样例对高效价靶子的效应更强。(3)在弱启动条件下,样例效价和靶子效价共同影响着社会判断及其决策过程,样例激活效应明显弱化,具体表现为:①样例激活仅对低效价靶子的判断影响显著,对高效价靶子影响不显著;②从具体样例对高、低效价靶子效应强度的比较看,正面样例对低效价靶子作用更强,反面样例只表现出略微差异。另外,“关联效应”会冲淡样例激活效应

关键词: 社会判断, 样例激活, 同化效应, 强启动, 弱启动

Abstract: Investigated the condition, function, intention and direction of the exemplar-activation effects in social judgment. Ss were 160 sophomores in the Department of Psychology, Northwest Normal University, China. The results suggested: (1) The exemplar-activation effect exists in both strong and weak priming conditions, and takes the forms of assimilation effect. (2) Under the strong priming condition, the exemplar-activation effect is significant. Furthermore, two kinds of exemplars (positive, negative) both show assimilation effects on each target of valences (positive, negative). But the positive exemplar shows stronger effect on the negative target than on the positive one. And the negative exemplar shows stronger effect on the positive target than on the negative one. (3) Under weak priming condition, the valence of exemplar and the valence of target jointly affect social judgment and its process of decision-making, and the effects of exemplar activation are weakened: ①overall, the significant effects of exemplar activation emerge only on the negative target; ②comparing the intensity of specific exemplar effects on the positive target with that of negative target, it reveals that the positive exemplar shows greater effect on the negative target, but the effects of negative exemplar is not significant. And “relation effect”could dilute the effects of exemplar activation

Key words: social judgement, exemplar activation, assimilation effect, strong priming, weak priming

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