ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (04): 14-20.

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  1. 陕西师范大学心理学系,华东师范大学心理学系 西安710062 ,上海200062
  • 出版日期:2002-08-25 发布日期:2002-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 游旭群


You XuqunYang Zhiliang ( Department of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062) ( Department of Psychology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 )   

  • Online:2002-08-25 Published:2002-08-25

摘要: 通过两个实验分别检测 2 0名飞行员和 10名老年被试及其相应控制组的视觉空间关系识别中的认知加工水平 ,旨在探讨视觉空间关系识别中的类别关系和数量关系加工子系统所表现出的认知特性。研究结果表明 ,在参与视觉空间关系判断的两个典型加工子系统中 ,负责数量 (坐标 )空间关系判断的加工子系统既可随系统训练而表现出功能增强的练习效应 ,也可随年老过程而发生功能衰减的年龄效应。相对而言 ,涉及类别空间关系判断的加工子系统则较少受到练习和年老化因素的影响。研究提示 ,由于受大脑神经解剖结构特点以及加工任务性质的影响 ,数量空间关系加工子系统更多地表现出了认知加工的可塑性和易变性特点 ,而类别空间关系加工子系统则表现出相对的稳定性或可塑性较低的认知特性

关键词: 空间关系识别, 加工子系统, 练习效应, 年龄效应, 可塑性

Abstract: This study examined the cognitive plasticity and stability in two typical processing subsystems in visuospatial relations encoding and judgment. Two experiments were conducted to test the levels of cognitive processing in image rotation among 20 pilots, 10 elderly adults, and among corresponding control groups. The results indicated that in the two main subsystems that were involved in visuospatial relation encoding and judgment, there were both a strong practice effect and an age effect. The corresponding function was found to improve with systematic training and decrease with aging in the metric/ coordinate subsystem of visuospatial relations encoding. In contrast, little effect of practice and age on the function of subsystems concerning categorical subsystem in visuospatial relations encoding was found in this study. The study suggested that due to some hereditary and intrinsic attributes of brain structure, the metric/coordinate subsystem could show a higher cognitive plasticity and susceptibility, while the categorical subsystems, however, showed cognitive stability and a lower plasticity. The implication of this study was discussed a high level visual processing theory, developed by Kosslyn.

Key words: spatial relations encoding, processing subsystem, practice effect, age effect, cognitive plasticity