ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 1986, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (02): 23-29.

• • 上一篇    下一篇

汉语字词的短时记忆容量

张武田;彭瑞祥;司马贺   

  1. 中国科学院心理研究所 ,中国科学院心理研究所 ,美国卡内基梅隆大学
  • 出版日期:1986-06-25 发布日期:1986-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 张武田

STM CAPACITY FOR CHINESE CHARACTERS AND PHRASES

Zhang Wutian;Peng Ruixiang;Si Mahe Institute of Psychology, Academia Sinica Carnegie-Mellon University   

  • Online:1986-06-25 Published:1986-06-25

摘要: 最简单的短时记忆信息加工理论认为短时记忆有一个固定组块数的容量。为了对短时记忆容量有更进一步的了解,用中文字词的即时回忆数量与英文的结果相对照将是有帮助的。本文对三种汉语材料,两种熟悉水平,两种呈现方法以及两种学习方式进行了控制对照实验。结果表明,以词为组块测量短时记忆容量比以其他单位测量更接近恒定。可是也观察到短时记忆容量随组块复杂性的增加而稍有下降。在机械学习中以其所用时间为测量单位也表现出组块相对恒定。刺激材料的熟悉程度对短时记忆容量的影响未显出大的差别,实验还发现视觉短时记忆容量比听觉大,序列位置分析表明主要在序列位置前部视觉成绩较听觉为好,并对其原因作了推测。

关键词: NULL

Abstract: The simplest information processing theory of STM asserts thatSTM has a capacity for a fixed number of chunks. To gain a deeperunderstanding of STM capacity, it would be useful to compare theimmediate recall span using Chinese characters and phrases with thatusing English words. Here, contral experiments were conducted forcomparison, using three kinds of Chinese materials: one-character words,two-character words and four-character phrases, each with two levelsof familiarity, two manners of expression and two learing methods. Theresults indicated that STM capacity approaches more closely to constancywhen measured in chunks than when measured in other units, but theSTM span decreases slightly with increase in chunk complexity. Relativechunk constancy was also observed in the time required for rotelearning of stimuli. The degree of familiarity of stimulus materials playsonly a moderate role in STM capacity. The visual STM span is largerthan the auditory span. Analysis of the serial position of STM capacityshows that for the first half, STM through vision is better than thatthrough audition. Some speculative explanations were offered.

Key words: NULL