ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 1958, Vol. 2 ›› Issue (00): 87-100.

• • 上一篇    

完形心理学批判

朱希亮   

  1. 华中师范学院
  • 收稿日期:1900-01-01 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:1958-01-01 发布日期:1958-01-01
  • 通讯作者: 朱希亮

CRITICAL COMMENTS ON GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY

CHU HSI-LIANG (Huachung Teacher's College)   

  • Received:1900-01-01 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:1958-01-01 Published:1958-01-01

摘要: <正> 完形心理学派孕育和誕生的时代是在十九世紀末和二十世紀初,这正是資本主义过渡到帝国主义阶段的时代。这时資产阶級的哲学和科学主要已走上主观唯心主义的道路,否定客观世界的存在,更特別的是这个时代的哲学和科学尽管它們本質是主观唯心主义的货色,但它們的外表必伪装成一种新科学,或冒充为最新的自然科学的哲学的样子。这个特征是与前几个世紀一般唯心主义者公开宣传他們的唯心主义有着完全不同的意义。因为这时資本主义已发展到帝国主义阶段,資产阶級为了掩护他們不可告人的罪恶,就更

Abstract: Gestalt school revolted against the method of analysis and urged that the wholenessproperties furnished the problem most worth while in psychology. But Gestaltist did not recognize that an organized whole or a Gestalt was the result of the integrated processes of the analysing and synthesizing functions of the cerebral cortex; and the so-called "phiphenomenon" was also depended on the favourable conditions of the differentiation of time and space. It is unscientific and misleading to emphasize the wholeness-properties but to reject analysis.Gestalt school regards thought as relatively independent of sensory experience and considers "insight" (Khler) as pure thinking that does not come through traced associations or results of trial and error behaviour. Evidently, for Gestaltist, it is a "fact" that knowledge is not derived from the senses and man thinks without the help of a brain!Kurt Koffka stresses the importance of the "behavioural environment" and says, "The environment is always an environment of something, so my behavioural enviournment is the environment of me and my behaviour". In reality, this is a repetition of Avenarius' the "principal co-ordination", i. e., "the indissoluble co-ordination of the self and the environment".——There is nothing but a paraphrase of subjective idealism, while Kurt Lewin asserts that we must not merely consider the environment as it objectively exists, the environment also is psychological; it has meaning for the individual. For this reason, Lewin erroneously fabricates a new term, the "psychological environment" for the study of the broader aspects of human behaviour (Koffka's "geographical environment" and "behavioural environment" included). Ihdeed! This is a simple rehash of the "principal co-ordination", à la Koffka.In short, Gestalt school insists that the whole are given in advance of experience, or Gestalten are inborn units——This is essentially Kantian apriorism (Transcendental idealism). As a matter of fact, the notion of Gestalt is not very modern but it is "scientifically a step backward".