ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (10): 1161-1172.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01161

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    

达者何以兼济天下:高阶层再分配偏向的心理机制及谦卑的作用

白洁1, 杨沈龙2, 徐步霄3, 郭永玉1()   

  1. 1南京师范大学心理学院, 南京 210097
    2西安交通大学人文社会科学学院社会心理学研究所, 西安 710049
    3绍兴文理学院大脑、心智与教育研究中心, 浙江 绍兴 312000
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-19 出版日期:2021-10-25 发布日期:2021-08-23
  • 通讯作者: 郭永玉 E-mail:yyguo@njnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(71971120);国家社会科学基金重点项目(20AZD084)

How can successful people share their goodness with the world: The psychological mechanism underlying the upper social classes’ redistributive preferences and the role of humility

BAI Jie1, YANG Shenlong2, XU Buxiao3, GUO Yongyu1()   

  1. 1School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China
    2Institute of Social Psychology, School of Humanities and Social Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
    3Center for Brain, Mind and Education, Shaoxing University, Zhejiang, Shaoxing 312000, China
  • Received:2020-08-19 Online:2021-10-25 Published:2021-08-23
  • Contact: GUO Yongyu E-mail:yyguo@njnu.edu.cn

摘要:

一些欧美研究发现高阶层者与低阶层者相比再分配偏向更低, 但是这一结论尚缺少跨文化一致性的证据, 而且对于这一现象的心理机制和干预策略的探讨也相对不足。基于此, 本研究通过3个子研究分别来关注我国民众再分配偏向的阶层差异及其心理机制, 并探讨可能的干预策略。结果发现:(1)与西方社会的情形相似, 在中国社会高阶层者的再分配偏向也显著低于低阶层者; (2)社会阶层对再分配偏向的影响, 部分是通过贫富差距归因倾向起作用的:与低阶层者相比, 高阶层者更倾向于将贫富差距归因于能力、努力、志向或抱负等个体内部因素, 进而再分配偏向更低; (3)通过启动高阶层者谦卑的心态, 能够降低其贫富差距内归因倾向, 进而提升其再分配偏向。此结果验证了社会阶层不平等维持模型的重要观点, 同时也为推动社会再分配、促进发展成果共享等提供了一定的社会治理启示。

关键词: 社会阶层, 贫富差距归因倾向, 再分配偏向, 谦卑

Abstract:

A large number of studies conducted in Europe and the Americas have explored the negative relationships between social class and redistributive preferences in recent years. However, few studies have addressed the cross-cultural consistency or explored the internal mechanism and intervention strategies of the effects of social class on redistributive preferences. The present study aimed to systematically and deeply explore the relationships between social class and redistributive preferences through three studies in the context of Chinese society.
Study 1 explored the direct relationship between social class and redistributive preferences. Based on national data from the Chinese General Social Survey of 2015, 8376 participants from all provinces and autonomous regions of China and indexes of measuring social class and redistributive preferences were obtained. Based on the inequality maintenance model of social class, Study 2 further explored the mediating role of attribution for the rich-poor gap between social class and redistributive preferences. 621 urban and rural residents were investigated by using objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) scales, a rich-poor attribution questionnaire, and a redistributive preferences scale. Study 3 was devoted to exploring the intervention effect of humility on the redistributive preferences of the upper social classes. A sample of 103 undergraduates from the upper social class were randomly assigned to humility priming group or control group.
The results showed that all social class indexes can strongly and negatively predict redistributive preferences, meaning that, as in Western society, upper social-class Chinese individuals also tend to have lower redistributive preferences than those from lower social classes. In addition, the influences of social class on redistributive preferences could be partly mediated through the attribution for the rich-poor gap. Compared with individuals from a subjectively lower class, upper-class individuals tended to attribute the gap between rich and poor to internal causes. That is to say, they tended to attribute the rich-poor gap to personal factors, such as abilities, efforts, and ambition. This attitude lowered upper-class individuals’ redistributive preferences even further. Finally, a short video was used to prime participants’ feelings of humility. Compared with a control group that watched a neutral video, those upper-class undergraduates who watched life stories of people with humble qualities experienced higher states of emotional humility. Priming a humble state lowered their tendency to attribute the gap between rich and poor to internal causes, and further improved their redistributive preferences to a significant extent.
In conclusion, these three studies deeply explore the relationships between social class and redistributive preferences in the context of Chinese society. Combined with other studies performed in Western societies, these results showed that, to some extent, the negative relationship between social class and redistributive preferences is cross-cultural. The exploration of this mechanism provides supporting data and enrichment for the inequality maintenance model of social class. The finding that humility is an important intervention strategy will further insight into social redistribution. These results suggest that, in order to render the benefits of economic development accessible to more people, social governance could cultivate individual humility through moral education, cultural development, and fostering a community spirit.

Key words: social class, attribution for rich-poor gap, redistributive preferences, humility

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