ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (9): 1003-1017.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.01003

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇


田一1,2, 王莉3, 许燕2(), 焦丽颖2   

  1. 1北京教育科学研究院北京市教育督导与教育质量评价研究中心, 北京 100036
    2北京师范大学心理学部, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 心理学国家级实验教学示范中心(北京师范大学), 北京 100875
    3北京体育大学心理学院, 北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-23 出版日期:2021-09-25 发布日期:2021-07-22
  • 通讯作者: 许燕
  • 基金资助:

Psychological structure of social mindfulness in Chinese culture

TIAN Yi1,2, WANG Li3, XU Yan2(), JIAO Liying2   

  1. 1Beijing Research Center for Education Supervision and Quality Assessment, Beijing Academy of Educational Sciences, Beijing, 100036, China
    2Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University), Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3School of Psychology, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, 100084, China
  • Received:2020-08-23 Online:2021-09-25 Published:2021-07-22
  • Contact: XU Yan


为探究中国人社会善念的心理结构, 研究采用人格词汇法, 在开放调查收集的词汇中选取代表社会善念的心理词语, 确立了社会善念词库。通过两次探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析, 得到包含18个人格特质词的社会善念词汇评定量表和包含17项描述的社会善念自陈量表。研究表明, 中国人的社会善念是一种具有二阶四因素结构的人际特质, 二阶是指宜人特质和外倾特质, 四因素分别是善良尊重、谦和恭逊、包容理解和积极开放。

关键词: 社会善念, 心理结构, 词汇学方法, 中国文化


Social mindfulness refers to the ability of an individual to sense others’ states during interpersonal interactions, his or her willingness to respect others’ choices, and his or her ability to transfer rights. Exploring the psychological structure of social mindfulness against the background of Chinese culture is important for cultivating a friendly and harmonious society.

This study explored the psychological structure of social mindfulness with a lexical method. In Study 1, 59 high- and 24 low-social mindfulness words were selected by word frequency analysis and multiple rounds of discussions. After being evaluated by 43 professionals and 232 nonprofessionals, 40 social mindfulness words were selected. In Study 2, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with Sample 1 (n = 351) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with Sample 2 (n = 307) were conducted to obtain a three-factor structure for social mindfulness; these structures include kindness and respect, tolerance and understanding, and optimism and open-mindedness. Additionally, a social mindfulness lexical rating scale (SMLRS) with 18 words was formed. In Study 3, we used the same method as in Study 2 to explore the structure of social mindfulness (EFA: Sample 1, n = 377; CFA: Sample 2, n = 220) through scenario descriptions. Then, a new 17-item social mindfulness self-report scale (SMSRS) and a model with two second-order factors and four first-order factors for the internalization of social mindfulness were generated. Both the SMLRS and SMSRS have good reliability and validity and can be used as measurement tools in follow-up research.

Through lexical analysis and psychometric analysis, we explored the psychological structure of social mindfulness, which contains two second-order factors and four first-order factors, in Chinese culture. In this model, the two second-order factors were agreeableness and extraversion, and the four first-order factors were kindness and respect, humility, optimism and open-mindedness, and tolerance and understanding.

From a theoretical point of view, we established a vocabulary of social mindfulness, verified social mindfulness’s second-order four-factor psychological structure, provided a new empirical basis for the higher- order factor theory of personality, and enriched our knowledge of personality and social behavior against the background of Chinese culture. From a practical point of view, the definition of social mindfulness plays a positive role in moral education in the field of education, in the training of employees in the field of organization and in the construction of mentality in the sociology field.

Key words: social mindfulness, psychological structure, lexical method, Chinese culture