ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (4): 337-348.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00337

• 研究报告 •    下一篇

注意促进运动知觉判断的时间进程

丁锦红1(), 汪亚珉1, 姜扬2   

  1. 1北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 首都师范大学心理学院, 北京 100048
    2肯塔基大学医学院行为科学系, 美国 肯塔基 40536-0086
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-14 出版日期:2021-04-25 发布日期:2021-04-07
  • 通讯作者: 丁锦红 E-mail:dingjh@cnu.edu.cn

Temporal dynamics of eye movements and attentional modulation in perceptual judgments of structure-from-motion (SFM)

DING Jinhong1(), WANG Yamin1, JIANG Yang2   

  1. 1Beijing Key Lab of Learning and Cognition, Collage of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing, 100048, China
    2Department of Behavioral Science, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0086, USA
  • Received:2020-04-14 Online:2021-04-25 Published:2021-04-07
  • Contact: DING Jinhong E-mail:dingjh@cnu.edu.cn

摘要:

本研究通过控制深度视觉线索, 分析3D SFM (structure from motion)知觉中的眼动特征, 探讨注意对SFM知觉判断的影响及其时间进程。结果显示, 有线索刺激比模糊刺激的判断更加快、更加肯定(百分比更高); 眼睛移动方向和微眼跳方向都分别与知觉判断的运动方向具有一致性; 微眼跳频次、峰速度和幅度也都分别表现出深度线索的促进效应。实验结果表明, SFM知觉过程大致分为速度计算和构建三维结构两个阶段; 注意对SFM知觉的调节作用主要发生在构建三维结构阶段; 注意从150 ms开始指向选择对象, 驻留持续约200 ms后, 从局部运动矢量流转移到整体运动方向的知觉判断。

关键词: 整体运动, 注意, 微眼跳, 时间进程, 知觉分组

Abstract:

How attention plays a role in resolving ambiguous perceptual judgments is one of the age-old scientific questions. Understanding the processes of perceptual grouping, switching, processing speed, and awareness is a key step towards solving significant problems in applications such as computer vision and automatic driving involving three-dimensional space. The rotating three-dimensional (3D) structure from motion (SFM) is a well-known bistable ambiguous stimulus. Thus far, it is still an open question how attention, eye movements, and depth cues modulate perceptual judgments of rotating directions of a 3D SFM. As early as 1925, motion perception resulted from eye tracking signals was proposed by Helmholtz (Cavanagh, 1992). Pomerantz (1970) claimed that eye movement plays an important role in the occurrence of kinesthetic perception. Furthermore, neuroscience studies has supported a common neural basis for eye movement and attention transfer (Grosbras, Laird & Paus, 2005). The current study aimed to investigate the characteristics and the time course of eye movements during SFM perception by controlling exogenous visual cues and ascertain the effect of attention on SFM perception. Using advanced eyemovements analysis, we investigated how attention under both unambiguous and ambiguous depth cues modulate perceptual judgments of rotation directions in deepth.
Twenty-two college students (10 males and 12 females), mean age 22, participated in this experiment. Their task was to indicate the rotation directions of 3D SFM by pressing the left (for clockwise CW percept from top view) or the right key of a mouse (for CCW percept) with their left or right thumb. A computer simulated structure-from-motion (a 3D rotating sphere) was created via 30 coherently moving dots with 0.2° diameter each along with an elliptical trajectory of different radii at a mean velocity of 5°/s. The luminant dots were randomly distributed in a spherical area extended 5°×5°. Under unambiguous depth cue condition, dots were fully illuminated in the half of their trajectories and partially illuminated in the other part of the trajectories. The two groups of dots appeared to move in opposite direction. There were two sets of cued rotations in which bright dots (drawing attention) moving leftwards or rightwards. For ambiguous condition (AMB), all dots had equal brightness (averaged luminance of unambiguous displays), which had equal chance to be seen as rotating in either CW or CCW direction. During each experimental trial, after a 500 ms fixation “+”, a rotation-in-depth structure was presented for about 950 ms. A mask of random brighter and dimer dots was displayed for 500 ms after a response window of 1500 ms at the end of each trial.
Advanced eyemovements analysis, e.g. microsaccade rates with directions and time courses, were conducted using methods from Bonneh, Adini & Polat (2015) and Hermens & Walker ( 2010). The statistical analysis revealed that perceptual judgments of rotation directions under unambiguous cues were faster and more confident than those under the ambiguous conditions. For the micro-saccade, peak velocity and amplitude were higher during perception of unambiguous 3D rotation than those during the ambiguous rotations. There was no significant difference in saccade duration. When participants judged the SFM as rotation of clockwise (left), their microsaccade rate towards left was significantly higher than that towards right and vise versa while the counter-clockwise judgment was made. Under the unambiguous condition, significant differences between CW-cw and CCW-ccw were found during time widows of 150~400 ms and 500~970 ms. In contrast, ambiguous conditions (AMB-cw and AMB-ccw) differed most during 700~950 ms, which indicated extra time of attentional processes.
Our findings of temporal dynamics of the ambiguous and unambiguous perceptual judgments of 3D rotations indicated two stages of processing. First, local speed calculation in three-dimensional structure construction during initial period of 150~200 ms after stimulus onset. Second, visual processing binds local motion vector flows to the overall perceptual judgment of rotation directions. The ambiguous conditions took longer time. When rotations were unambiguous, attentional facilitates during perceptual judgment of 3D rotation of SFM speed up in the higher-level processing.

Key words: structure-from-motion (SFM), attention, microsaccade, time course, perceptual grouping

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