ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (9): 1087-1104.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01087

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

“涟漪效应”与“心理台风眼效应”:不同程度COVID-19疫情地区民众风险认知与焦虑的双视角检验

温芳芳1, 马书瀚1, 叶含雪1, 齐玥2(), 佐斌1()   

  1. 1华中师范大学心理学院?社会心理研究中心, 青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 武汉 430079
    2中国科学院行为科学重点实验室?中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-18 出版日期:2020-09-25 发布日期:2020-07-24
  • 通讯作者: 齐玥,佐斌 E-mail:qiy@psych.ac.cn;zuobin@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家社会科学基金重大项目(18ZDA331);华中师范大学中央高校基本科研项目(CCNU20A06059);华中师范大学中央高校基本科研项目(CCNU20A06103)

“Psychological Typhoon Eye Effect” and “Ripple Effect”: Double perspective test of risk perception and anxiety characteristics of people in different COVID-19severityregions

WEN Fangfang1, MA Shuhan1, YE Hanxue1, QI Yue2(), ZUO Bin1()   

  1. 1School of Psychology, Research Center of Social Psychology, Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430079, China
    2CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2020-02-18 Online:2020-09-25 Published:2020-07-24
  • Contact: QI Yue,ZUO Bin E-mail:qiy@psych.ac.cn;zuobin@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

摘要:

在因防控COVID-19疫情武汉“封城”后的一个半月内, 对全国34个省(区市)4833名民众的风险认知与焦虑进行了当事人视角和旁观者视角的调查研究。结果表明, (1)基于当事人视角时, 不同程度疫情地区民众的风险认知和焦虑存在类似“涟漪效应”的趋势, 疫情严重地区大于其他地区; (2)基于旁观者视角, 民众对武汉居民的焦虑和对所需心理咨询工作者和医生数量的评估存在“心理台风眼效应”; (3)基于旁观者视角, 在风险认知上, 低风险地区民众对武汉居民的评估显著低于高、中高及中风险地区的评估, 部分支持“涟漪效应”; 研究还发现了“边缘带效应”和“心理可控阈限”的存在。本研究一方面为“心理台风眼效应”研究的“当事人与旁观者”视角知觉差异提供了更为丰富的直接证据, 另一方面为突发公共卫生事件应急管理提供了有针对性的心理依据。

关键词: 新冠肺炎疫情, 风险认知, 焦虑, 心理台风眼效应, 涟漪效应, 边缘带效应

Abstract:

COVID-19 has greatly affected the psychological state of Chinese people. This study carried out a dynamic follow-up survey of the psychological state of Chinese people and their evaluation of Wuhan residents during the epidemic period since the day of Wuhan’s citywide lockdown. The purpose of this work was to explore differences in degree of concern, risk perception, and anxiety response among regions affected by COVID-19 to different degrees. Our findings have important practical value for future crisis emergency management.

This work included a large-scale survey covering 4833 Chinese residents, and it was conducted after Wuhan was closed. Its purpose was to assess whether COVID-19 invoked the psychological typhoon eye effect of a disaster event. The survey involved two angles, the “actor” angle, in which participants evaluated their own psychological states, and the “bystander” angle, in which participants evaluated other Wuhan citizens’ psychological states. We called these Study 1 and Study 2. Study1 explored the psychological state of residents themselves and the results were consistent with the ripple effect to some extent within the epidemic period, which is the opposite pattern of the psychological typhoon eye. The residents who lived near the hardest-hit areas showed significantly higher risk perception and anxiety. Study 2 explored how people from different areas evaluated Wuhan residents’ psychological state. The results of Study 2 did show a replicated psychological typhoon eye effect in terms of anxiety, and number of psychological workers and doctors residents needed. However, when it came to risk cognition, residents in low-risk areas rated Wuhan citizens’ risk cognition as significantly lower than people in high-risk areas did, which generally manifested as a ripple effect.

This study also showed a marginal zone effect and a psychological controllable threshold. The concave effect means there was a phenomenon in which risk perception was lower in the middle zone or middle-risk area than at either end. The psychological controllable threshold is one of the sub-scales of risk cognition. That is, uncontrollability did not show the psychological typhoon eye effect in the bystander portion of our study.

This paper further expands and enriches the boundary conditions of the psychological typhoon eye effect of public risk events, provides more abundant and direct research evidence for the perception difference between actor and bystander angle in the study of psychological typhoon eye effect, and has important implications for a deeper understanding of the psychological evolution of public health emergencies and public crisis management.

Key words: COVID-19, Psychological Typhoon Eye Effect, Ripple Effect, risk perception, anxiety, marginal zone effect

中图分类号: