ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (9): 1057-1070.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01057

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

小学高年级学生创造力的发展:性别差异及学校支持的作用

张景焕1(), 付萌萌1, 辛于雯1, 陈佩佩1, 沙莎2   

  1. 1山东师范大学心理学院, 济南 250014
    2陆军指挥学院, 南京 210045
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-07 出版日期:2020-09-25 发布日期:2020-07-24
  • 通讯作者: 张景焕 E-mail:zhangjinghuan@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金项目(31771235);国家重点研发计划重点专项项目(SQ2017YFB1400100)

The development of creativity in senior primary school students: Gender differences and the role of school support

ZHANG Jinghuan1(), FU Mengmeng1, XIN Yuwen1, CHEN Peipei1, SHA Sha2   

  1. 1School of Psychology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China
    2Army Command College, Nanjing 210045, China
  • Received:2019-11-07 Online:2020-09-25 Published:2020-07-24
  • Contact: ZHANG Jinghuan E-mail:zhangjinghuan@126.com

摘要:

对203名4年级学生进行3年追踪测试(到6年级), 采用多水平分析法考察创造力的发展趋势、性别差异以及教师/同伴支持对创造力发展的影响。结果表明:(1) 4~6年级小学生的流畅性呈线性增长趋势, 灵活性和独创性呈非线性增长趋势, 初始水平与增长速度呈正相关。(2)女生灵活性和独创性的初始水平高于男生。(3)教师支持正向预测男生灵活性的初始水平, 正向预测流畅性的初始水平和独创性的增长速度。(4)教师支持的发展正向预测流畅性的发展。

关键词: 创造力, 学校支持, 性别差异, 追踪研究, 小学高年级学生

Abstract:

Creativity has been emphasized as a key competence for adolescents to achieve success in the rapidly changing world. Although developmental psychologists have put tremendous efforts into identifying the developmental trajectory of creativity, no consensus has yet been reached. Researchers have found many factors that potentially affect the development of creativity, including individual differences (such as gender differences), and the influence of the classroom environment. Besides, previous studies have not examined the creativity trajectory taking both the initial level and the growth speed into consideration. To address these flaws, the present study adopted a longitudinal design to explore the creativity development of senior primary school students through the between-person comparisons of different gender groups and school supports (the support from teachers and peers) as well as the within-person changes in response to the changing supports from schools.

Two hundred and three Grade-4 primary school students (109 boys and 94 girls, mean age = 10.43 years, SD = 0.62 years, during the first phase of the test, T1) from three elementary schools participated in the three years’ longitudinal study and were assessed for three times (T1, T2, T3). Runco Creativity Assessment Battery (figural divergent thinking tests from rCAB) and Perceived School Climate Scale were used to measure creativity and school support, respectively. The study project was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Shandong Normal University and obtained the informed consent of parents of the participants. The data were managed and analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and HLM 6.08 software. A series of analyses, including descriptive, correlation, and multilevel analyses, were conducted to explore the developmental trajectory of creativity and the potential relationship between the school support and creativity.

The results of the study were as follows: (1) The fluency of creativity of senior primary school students from grade 4 to 6 showed a linear growth trend, while the flexibility and originality of creativity showed a non-linear growth trend. In addition, the initial level of creativity was positively correlated with its growth speed. (2) Individual differences existed not only in the initial levels of fluency, flexibility, and originality, but also in the growth speed of fluency and originality. (3) Senior primary school girls performed significantly higher at initial levels of flexibility and originality than their male counterparts. (4) On the between-person level, the interaction between teacher support and gender significantly predicted the initial level of flexibility; teacher support significantly positively predicted the initial level of fluency; teacher support significantly positively predicted the growth speed of originality. (5) On the within-person level, time-varying teacher support significantly positively predicted time-varying fluency.

The current study is, to our knowledge, the first exploration to describe the developmental trajectory of senior primary school students’ creativity in Mainland China using a longitudinal design. These findings will deepen the understanding of developmental rules of creativity, and provide implications for the cultivation of creativity among senior primary school students.

Key words: creativity, school support, gender difference, longitudinal study, senior primary school students

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