ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (4): 469-484.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00469

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

语音记忆和中央执行功能在不同年级儿童解码和语言理解中的作用

赵鑫1,2, 李红利2, 金戈3(), 李世峰1,2, 周爱保1,2(), 梁文佳2, 郭红霞2, 蔡亚亚2   

  1. 1 甘肃省行为与心理健康重点实验室, 西北师范大学, 兰州 730070
    2 西北师范大学心理学院, 兰州 730070
    3 兰州城市学院教育学院, 兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-19 出版日期:2020-04-25 发布日期:2020-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 金戈,周爱保 E-mail:jinge0702@163.com;zhouab@nwnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金(31560283)

Effects of phonological memory and central executive function on decoding, language comprehension of children in different grades

ZHAO Xin1,2, LI Hongli2, JIN Ge3(), LI Shifeng1,2, ZHOU Aibao1,2(), LIANG Wenjia2, GUO Hongxia2, CAI Yaya2   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Behavioral and Mental Health of Gansu province, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    2 School of Psychology, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
    3 College of Education, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2019-08-19 Online:2020-04-25 Published:2020-02-25
  • Contact: JIN Ge,ZHOU Aibao E-mail:jinge0702@163.com;zhouab@nwnu.edu.cn

摘要:

选取256名三~六年级儿童, 采用相关分析、结构方程模型等方法考察了语音记忆和中央执行功能在不同年级儿童的解码和语言理解中的作用。结果显示, 在低年级阶段, 语音记忆和刷新对解码存在显著预测作用, 转换和刷新对语言理解存在显著预测作用; 在高年级阶段, 只有刷新对解码保持着稳定的预测作用。这表明, 语音记忆和中央执行功能对儿童的解码和语言理解存在不同的影响, 并且这种影响会随着年级的增长发生变化。

关键词: 语音记忆, 中央执行功能, 小学儿童, 解码, 语言理解

Abstract:

Reading comprehension is one of the most complex behaviors that we engage in on a regular basis. Decoding and language comprehension are two important components of reading comprehension. While up to now, little research has been devoted to directly explore the effects of phonological memory and central executive function on diverse reading comprehension components (decoding and language comprehension). In addition, the primary school stage is a critical period of development of children's reading ability and cognitive ability. However, few research has focused on the developmental changes in the relationship of phonological memory, central executive function and reading comprehension among children in different grades. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of phonological memory and central executive function on decoding and language comprehension of children in different grade levels.

Two hundred and fifty-six children completed Chinese Characters Reading, Chinese Word Reading, and Pseudo-Word Reading to investigate decoding ability, as well as a Listening Comprehension Test to exam language comprehension. Additionally, we used Digit Span and Non-word Span to measure children's phonological memory, and GO/NOGO task, Stroop task, Digit updating task and Digit shifting task to investigate children's central executive function. Correlation analysis and structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate the effects of phonological memory and central executive function on decoding, language comprehension of children in different grades.

Results indicated that, the effect of phonological memory and updating on decoding were significant. Also, the effect of updating and shifting on language comprehension were significant. On further analysis, we divided the four grades into two levels based on the reading stage theory, that third grade and fourth grade as one level, fifth grade and sixth grade as another level. In the third grade and fourth grade level, phonological memory and updating accuracy contributed to decoding. Moreover, updating accuracy and shifting cost predicted language comprehension. In the fifth grade and sixth grade level, only the effect of updating on decoding was significant.The results indicated that, the prediction of phonological memory on decoding disappeared as children progress through school. More importantly, we found that updating had a relatively stable contribution to decoding across grade levels.

It revealed that different functions of working memory played different roles in reading, which seem that not all cognitive abilities are equally important in the reading process. Furthermore, phonological memory and central executive function produced different predictive effects in decoding and language comprehension as the grades grew.

Key words: phonological memory, central executive function, primary school children, decoding, language comprehension

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