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心理学报  2020, Vol. 52 Issue (1): 66-80    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00066
  研究报告 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
脱贫内生动力机制的质性探究
傅安国1,2,张再生1,郑剑虹3(),岳童4,林肇宏2,吴娜5,黄希庭4()
1 天津大学管理与经济学部, 天津 300072
2 海南大学管理学院, 海口 570228
3 岭南师范学院心理学系暨广东省特殊儿童发展与教育重点实验室, 广东 湛江 524048
4 西南大学 心理学与社会发展研究中心, 心理学部, 重庆 400715
5 海南经贸职业技术学院, 海口 571127
Qualitative research on the endogenous power mechanism for poverty elimination
FU Anguo1,2,ZHANG Zaisheng1,ZHENG Jianhong3(),YUE Tong4,LIN Zhaohong2,WU Na5,HUANG Xiting4()
1 College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
2 School of Management, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
3 Department of Psychology & Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Development and Education for Special Needs Children, LingNan Normal University, Zhanjiang, 524048;
4 Research Center for Psychology and Social Development, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China
5 Hainan College of Economics and Business, Haikou 571127, China
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摘要 

内生动力是世代贫困个体得以脱贫的核心心理资源。当前, 对脱贫的内生动力仍然缺乏系统性的解释框架。文章以脱贫的内生动力为切入点, 基于内生和外生融合性视角, 采用基于深度访谈的扎根理论方法, 运用强度抽样的策略, 以海南岛某深度贫困村的成功脱贫个体(7人)、世代贫困个体(10人)及扶贫干部(4人)为研究对象, 构建出世代贫困家庭的整体内生动力资源枯竭模型。研究表明:1)以消极的价值观、消极的自我观和被动脱贫的行为倾向为主体的“三因素洋葱模型”是世代贫困个体的消极内在驱动力; 2)作为社会心理动力的控制感缺失是引致世代贫困个体内生动力匮乏的重要诱因, 而贫困个体缺少市场理性及扶贫的运动式治理可能是导致控制感缺失的外部肇因; 3)家长亲职能力在家庭内部建设能力培植子代内生动力的过程中起着中间作用, 即家庭内部建设能力可促进家长亲职能力的提高, 进而激发子代脱贫的内生动力。

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关键词 脱贫内生动力整体内生动力资源枯竭模型精准心理扶贫世代贫困扎根理论    
Abstract

Poverty remains one of the most pressing and vexing issues facing the world today. Although progress has been made in alleviating poverty in China, more efforts are needed to manage the intractable generations that have been affected by poverty. Endogenous power is the core psychological resource for low-income individuals to move out of poverty. However, there is a lack of a research framework for the endogenous power of poverty elimination in the Chinese context, which may result in a scarcity of relevant empirical research and the neglect of psychological factors in the formulation of poverty alleviation policies. This study deploys qualitative research methods to explore the psychological structure and key influencing factors of endogenous power of generations of low-income individuals with a goal of providing proposals on psychologically targeted poverty alleviation.
The researchers utilized an intensity sampling method to obtain study participants, and grounded theory, based on in-depth interviews, was adopted as research methodology. Participants comprised individuals who had successfully (seven people) or unsuccessfully (ten people) pulled themselves out of poverty as well as poverty alleviation cadres (four cadres) from a deeply impoverished village on Hainan Island. This study attempts to construct an integral endogenous power depletion model for intergenerational poverty from the perspectives of endogenous power for poverty elimination and the integration of endogenous and exogenous driving forces. The study followed the standard procedure of grounded theory, and we analyzed the data with Nvivo 11.0. Based on grounded theory, preliminary analysis, generic analysis, and theoretical construction of the collected data were conducted. Inspections of the participants and non-participants were used to verify the research results’ validity.
The findings of the study fall into three categories. First, the “Three-factor Onion Model” with negative values, negative self-concept, and the behavioral tendencies of passive anti-poverty as the core factors was found to be the endogenous driving force of generations of low-income individuals. Second, perceived control loss as a psychosocial driving force is an important cause of the lack of endogenous power among those poverty-stricken people for generations, and the combination of a lack of market rationality and campaign-style poverty alleviation are external causes of perceived control loss. Third, under the influence of the construction of inner capacities, parenting capabilities become an important internal driving force, as they take an intermediate role during the promotion of endogenous powers to their offspring and help cultivate positive psychological resources for the family.
This paper attempts to place the internal psychological factors and external key factors that lead to generational poverty into a holistic research framework. Although some enlightening views have been obtained, the results are constrained by the complexity of the theme and the limitations of the data, and only a general exploration could be made. In the future, quantitative research methods may be adopted to verify the accuracy of the Internal Motivation Depletion Model for intergenerational poverty.

Key wordsintegral endogenous power depletion model    endogenous power for poverty elimination    psychologically targeted poverty alleviation    generations of poverty    grounded theory
收稿日期: 2019-03-01      出版日期: 2019-11-21
中图分类号:  B849:C91  
基金资助:* 国家社科基金青年项目“生命历程视角下海南黎族家庭世代贫困的生成机理及治理研究”(项目编号17CMZ042)
通讯作者: 郑剑虹,黄希庭     E-mail: zjhong@sina.com;xthuang@swu.edu.cn
引用本文:   
傅安国,张再生,郑剑虹,岳童,林肇宏,吴娜,黄希庭. (2020). 脱贫内生动力机制的质性探究. 心理学报, 52(1): 66-80.
FU Anguo,ZHANG Zaisheng,ZHENG Jianhong,YUE Tong,LIN Zhaohong,WU Na,HUANG Xiting. (2020). Qualitative research on the endogenous power mechanism for poverty elimination. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 52(1), 66-80.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00066      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2020/V52/I1/66
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