ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (12): 1375-1385.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.01375

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

工作压力对建设型和防御型建言的差异影响

卢红旭1, 周帆2, 吴挺3, 严进2(), 邵闫4, 刘艳彬1   

  1. 1 浙江大学宁波理工学院商学院, 宁波 315100
    2 浙江大学管理学院, 杭州 310058
    3 浙江大学城市学院商学院, 杭州 310015
    4 阿姆斯特丹大学商学院, 荷兰 阿姆斯特丹 1018 TV
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-19 出版日期:2019-12-25 发布日期:2019-10-21
  • 通讯作者: 严进 E-mail:yanjin@zju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金面上项目(71572175);教育部人文社科青年基金项目(18YJC630111);国家自然科学基金创新研究群体项目资助(71821002)

The divergent effects of work stress on constructive voice and defensive voice: A cross-level of moderated mediation model

LU Hong-Xu1, ZHOU Fan2, WU Ting3, YAN Jin2(), SHAO Yan4, LIU Yan-Bin1   

  1. 1 School of Business, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100, China
    2 School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
    3 School of Business, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou 310015, China
    4 Amsterdam Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1018 TV, The Netherlands
  • Received:2019-04-19 Online:2019-12-25 Published:2019-10-21
  • Contact: YAN Jin E-mail:yanjin@zju.edu.cn

摘要:

以往研究普遍从建言行为的建设性意图特征出发, 探讨其关键前因、产生机制和情境因素, 但却较少关注建言行为的工具性目的。基于资源保存理论, 本研究构建了有调节的中介模型以探讨工作压力影响员工建设型建言和防御型建言的作用机制和边界条件。通过对某建筑企业386名员工进行两阶段调查, 结果表明:工作压力与防御型建言存在正向相关关系, 与建设型建言存在负向相关关系, 自我损耗在其中起中介作用; 另外, 领导开明性正向调节自我损耗和建设型建言的负向相关关系, 并正向调节工作压力通过自我损耗影响建设型建言的间接效应。

关键词: 工作压力, 自我损耗, 建设型建言, 防御型建言, 领导开明性

Abstract:

Previous studies have mainly considered voice as a behavior with constructive intention for the organization. However, such studies have failed to recognize that voice can be an important means for individuals to achieve their own instrumental goals. Among the few studies that have examined the instrumentality of voice behavior, little attention has been paid to distinguishing between the types of voice behavior motivated by instrumental goals, leading to an incomplete understanding of the instrumental side of the behavior. Hence, this study attempts to broaden our understanding of different voice behaviors as a means of satisfying different instrumental goals in pressure situations.
Specifically, based on conservation of resources theory, we suggest that high work pressure indicates threats, increasing individuals’ motivation to conserve resources and thus leading to more defensive voice. In contrast, when work pressure is low, the environment is likely to be perceived as benign, motivating the expression of constructive voice. Importantly, we highlight the role of leader openness as an important boundary condition. Leader openness signals that voice behavior is encouraged and valued, leading to positive expectations for employees to maintain or acquire resources through such behavior, which further motivates that behavior. In contrast, when leaders turn a blind eye to their employees’ voice, employees perceive that their suggestion behavior cannot help them achieve their instrumental goals, and they thus stay silent about work-related issues. Taken together, we suggest that work pressure leads to more defensive voice and less constructive voice, especially when leader openness is high.
To test our conceptual model, we conducted a one-month time-lagged study among 386 employees from 50 teams at a construction site. We found that although employees’ perceptions of work stress significantly decreased constructive voice, they also increased defensive voice. Ego depletion mediated the effects of work stress on these two types of voice behavior. Moreover, the results showed that group-level leader openness significantly reinforced the negative relationship between work stress and constructive voice, as well as the negative indirect effect of work pressure on constructive voice through ego depletion. However, the moderating effect of leader openness was not observed when testing the direct and indirect effects of work pressure on defensive voice.
This study makes three main contributions to the literature. First, responding to researchers’ recommendations in recent years, the study investigated the mechanisms of different types of voice behaviors. Second, the study drew on conservation of resources theory to explain the effects of work stress on voice behavior, enhancing our understanding of why people engage in certain types of voice behavior in response to work stress. Finally, the study highlights leader openness as an important boundary condition, clarifying when work stress is more likely or less likely to lead to different voice behaviors.

Key words: work stress, ego depletion, constructive voice, defensive voice, leader openness

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